Project Number: 9KH38
Project Chief: Randy Hunt
Project Topics: Groundwater Recharge
Period of Project: ongoing
Although Wisconsin has extensive hydrologic data at multiple spatial and temporal scales, to date no one has taken on the task of synthesizing these data in a framework suitable for producing recharge rate estimates. As a result, maximal use of these data sets, and an improved understanding of the processes that control recharge in humid regions, have not been realized.
Estimate statewide recharge rates to shallow aquifers by basin. Determine trends in recharge rates. Investigate dominant recharge processes occurring in select undeveloped, agricultural, and urban watersheds.
The approaches used include regression modeling of baseflow, coupled groundwater-surface water modeling, and investigation into the temporal and spatial distribution of recharge in Wisconsin. A second area of work will involve analysis of the long-term Ground Water Observation Well database for climate trends and effects of oceanic climate signals.
The methods used to estimate recharge in Wisconsin are described in the publications listed below. The journal article documents the initial state-wide regression, and the Open-File Report discusses the procedure for estimating recharge for sites with one or more baseflow measurements. The Fact Sheet summarizes the methodology and results of both.
Use of Streamflow Data to Estimate Base Flow/Ground-Water Recharge For Wisconsin
By Warren A. Gebert, Mandy J. Radloff, Ellen J. Considine, and James L. Kennedy
Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), vol. 43, issue 1, pg. 220-236
Available through JAWRA.
Estimating 1970-99 Average Annual Groundwater Recharge in Wisconsin Using Streamflow Data
By Warren A. Gebert, John F. Walker, and James L. Kennedy
Open-File Report 2009-1210, 14 p. plus appendixes
Download full report.
Groundwater Recharge in Wisconsin - Annual Estimates for 1970-99 Using Streamflow Data
By Warren A. Gebert, John F. Walker, and Randall J. Hunt
Fact Sheet 2009-3092, 4 p.
Download full report.
USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database
For streamflow measurements made at continuous-record and crest-stage gages, access the NWIS database here.
Miscellaneous Measurements database
The Miscellaneous Streamflow Measurements Database contains streamflow measurements collected throughout Wisconsin that are not included in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database. These measurements were primarily collected for low-flow studies.
Access the Miscellaneous Streamflow Measurements Database here.