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Evaluating the Potential Benefits of Permeable Pavement on the Quantity and Quality of Stormwater Runoff


Background


Urbanization of the landscape has an appreciable negative impact on the quantity and quality of runoff water entering our lakes and streams (Davis, 2005; Wang and others, 2001; Williamson, 1993).  By replacing natural land covers (like grasslands and forests) with impervious surfaces (like parking lots and streets), we lose the water retaining role of the soil and vegetation. Increased runoff from impervious surfaces causes dangerous floods, severe erosion damage to our stream channels, diminished recharge of groundwater, and degraded habitat for our fisheries. These same impervious surfaces can transport the many pollutants deposited in urban areas, such as nutrients, sediment, bacteria, pesticides, and chloride. In the worst cases, the amount of pollutants in urban runoff are high enough to prevent us from being able to swim or fish in our local waters.

Efforts to reduce the impacts of urban runoff have been happening for some time at federal, state, and local levels. The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law that regulates the quality of the nation’s water bodies. The CWA, through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) program, establishes pollution limits for anyone discharging into streams and lakes, including cities. In Wisconsin, NPDES permits are issued by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) which identify performance standards and limits for things like peak flow, runoff volume, phosphorus, and total suspended solids. As part of their permit, each city must prepare a management plan to meet these prescribed limits by implementing best management practices (BMPs). BMPs are practices, treatments, and technologies that can alleviate one or more if these negative effects. Permeable pavement is one of these BMPs that is believed to improve water quality and reduce the impacts of urban runoff.

What is Permeable Pavement?


Permeable pavement is a porous urban surface composed of open pore pavers, concrete, or asphalt with an underlying stone reservoir. Permeable pavement catches precipitation and surface runoff, storing it in the reservoir while slowly allowing it to infiltrate into the soil below or discharge via a drain tile. The most common uses of permeable pavement are parking lots, low-traffic roads, sidewalks, and driveways.

perm pavement types

 

What are the Potential Benefits of Permeable Pavement?


General hydrologic benefits

  • Permeable pavements help reestablish a more natural hydrologic balance and reduce runoff volume by trapping and slowly releasing precipitation into the ground instead of allowing it to flow into storm drains and out to receiving waters as effluent. This same process also reduces the peak rates of discharge by preventing large, fast pulses of precipitation through the stormwater system.
  • Permeable pavement can reduce the concentration of some pollutants either physically (by trapping it in the pavement or soil), chemically (bacteria and other microbes can break down and utilize some pollutants), or biologically (plants that grow in-between some types of pavers can trap and store pollutants).

  • By slowing down the process, permeable pavements can cool down the temperature of urban runoff, reducing the stress and impact on the stream or lake environment.

  • By controlling the runoff at the source, such as a parking lot, permeable pavement can also reduce the need for or the required size of a regional BMP, such as a wet detention pond, which saves money and effort.


Cold-weather benefits


  • Another benefit of permeable pavement is the reduced need to apply road salt for deicing in the winter time. Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have observed that permeable asphalt only needs 0 to 25% of the salt routinely applied to normal asphalt (Houle and others, 2009).

  • Other researchers have found that the air trapped in the pavement can store heat and release it to the surface, promoting the melting and thawing of snow and ice (Roseen and others, 2012).

Concerns People Have About Using Permeable Pavement


Here are some of the concerns and questions about permeable pavement:

  • Durability – Will permeable pavement last as long as traditional pavement?

  • Upkeep and maintenance – Permeable pavement can clog with sediment and pollutants, reducing its permeability and beneficial productivity.
    • How much effort is required to keep permeable pavement functioning?
    • What is the frequency of maintenance needed to maintain design life of the pavement?

  • Water quality - How much pollutant reduction can be expected? Of particular interest, low reductions have been observed for nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). This concern has two implications:
    • What is the potential for groundwater contamination by infiltrating water treated by permeable pavements?
    • What is the quality of water discharged from a permeable pavement drain tile?

  • Temperature - What temperature reductions can be expected with permeable pavement?

  • Residence time – How long does the runoff need to stay in the storage layer to adequately treat the runoff?

  • Model accuracy - How well can existing urban runoff models predict the water quality benefits of permeable pavement?

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04037500: Flow=208cfs,Stage=5.70ft,2016-05-29 15:00,High,CISCO BRANCH ONTONAGON R AT CISCO LAKE OUTLET, MI 04031000: Flow=955cfs,Stage=4.52ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 15:00,High,BLACK RIVER NEAR BESSEMER, MI 05427718: Flow=38cfs,Stage=1.36ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:00,>90,YAHARA RIVER AT WINDSOR, WI 05423500: Flow=75cfs,Stage=2.71ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:00,>90,SOUTH BRANCH ROCK RIVER AT WAUPUN, WI 05369000: Flow=3030cfs,Stage=8.50ft,2016-05-29 14:30,>90,RED CEDAR RIVER AT MENOMONIE, WI 05367500: Flow=2230cfs,Stage=4.83ft,2016-05-29 14:00,>90,RED CEDAR RIVER NEAR COLFAX, WI 05360500: Flow=5050cfs,Stage=9.07ft,2016-05-29 14:15,>90,FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05356500: Flow=4980cfs,Stage=6.19ft,2016-05-29 14:00,>90,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05356000: Flow=2550cfs,Stage=7.08ft,2016-05-29 14:30,>90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT BISHOPS BRIDGE NEAR WINTER, WI 04081000: Flow=361cfs,Stage=2.14ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:00,>90,WAUPACA RIVER NEAR WAUPACA, WI 04027000: Flow=2380cfs,Stage=6.17ft,2016-05-29 14:45,>90,BAD RIVER NEAR ODANAH, WI 05548280: Flow=248cfs,Stage=4.82ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,NIPPERSINK CREEK NEAR SPRING GROVE, IL 05433000: Flow=242cfs,Stage=5.56ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,EAST BRANCH PECATONICA RIVER NR BLANCHARDVILLE, WI 05432500: Flow=363cfs,Stage=4.20ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,PECATONICA RIVER AT DARLINGTON, WI 05414820: Flow=36cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2016-05-29 13:15,76-90,SINSINAWA RIVER NEAR MENOMINEE, IL 05408000: Flow=224cfs,Stage=3.28ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,KICKAPOO RIVER AT LA FARGE, WI 05406500: Flow=64cfs,Stage=2.14ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,BLACK EARTH CREEK AT BLACK EARTH, WI 05405000: Flow=527cfs,Stage=8.80ft,Floodstage=16ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,BARABOO RIVER NEAR BARABOO, WI 05399500: Flow=411cfs,Stage=4.98ft,Floodstage=15.5ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,BIG EAU PLEINE RIVER AT STRATFORD, WI 05396000: Flow=757cfs,Stage=4.13ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,BIG RIB RIVER AT RIB FALLS, WI 05393500: Flow=241cfs,Stage=3.08ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,SPIRIT RIVER AT SPIRIT FALLS, WI 05382000: Flow=2510cfs,2016-05-29 14:00,Stage=5.49ft,2016-05-29 14:45:00,Floodstage=12ft,76-90,BLACK RIVER NEAR GALESVILLE, WI 05381000: Flow=1550cfs,Stage=5.80ft,Floodstage=18ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,BLACK RIVER AT NEILLSVILLE, WI 05379500: Flow=557cfs,Stage=5.59ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT DODGE, WI 05369500: Flow=15000cfs,Stage=7.14ft,Floodstage=13ft,2016-05-29 14:45,76-90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT DURAND, WI 05368000: Flow=439cfs,Stage=4.67ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,HAY RIVER AT WHEELER, WI 05365500: Flow=14700cfs,Stage=9.24ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT CHIPPEWA FALLS, WI 05362000: Flow=1540cfs,Stage=6.07ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,JUMP RIVER AT SHELDON, WI 05333500: Flow=2540cfs,Stage=2.61ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,ST. CROIX RIVER NEAR DANBURY, WI 04087233: Flow=55cfs,Stage=3.30ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,ROOT RIVER CANAL NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087204: Flow=27cfs,Stage=2.74ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:25,76-90,OAK CREEK AT SOUTH MILWAUKEE, WI 04087120: Flow=126cfs,Stage=2.30ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,MENOMONEE RIVER AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087000: Flow=577cfs,Stage=2.55ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04086000: Flow=282cfs,Stage=2.54ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 13:45,76-90,SHEBOYGAN RIVER AT SHEBOYGAN, WI 04085200: Flow=74cfs,Stage=9.25ft,Floodstage=14ft,2016-05-29 13:45,76-90,KEWAUNEE RIVER NEAR KEWAUNEE, WI 04080000: Flow=719cfs,Stage=2.24ft,Floodstage=5ft,2016-05-29 13:00,76-90,LITTLE WOLF RIVER AT ROYALTON, WI 04078500: Flow=499cfs,Stage=3.77ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:00,76-90,EMBARRASS RIVER NEAR EMBARRASS, WI 04073500: Flow=1720cfs,Stage=10.99ft,Floodstage=13ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,FOX RIVER AT BERLIN, WI 04067500: Flow=5320cfs,Stage=11.29ft,Floodstage=15ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR MC ALLISTER, WI 04066003: Flow=4730cfs,Stage=9.52ft,Floodstage=15ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,MENOMINEE RIVER BELOW PEMENE CREEK NEAR PEMBINE,WI 04064500: Flow=732cfs,Stage=3.50ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,PINE RIVER BELOW PINE R POWERPLANT NR FLORENCE, WI 04063000: Flow=3460cfs,Stage=5.90ft,2016-05-29 15:00,76-90,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR FLORENCE, WI 04062000: Flow=340cfs,Stage=3.56ft,2016-05-29 13:30,76-90,PAINT RIVER NEAR ALPHA, MI 04060993: Flow=658cfs,Stage=4.60ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,BRULE RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 2 NEAR FLORENCE, WI 04060500: Flow=114cfs,Stage=5.24ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,IRON RIVER AT CASPIAN, MI 04027500: Flow=586cfs,Stage=2.08ft,2016-05-29 14:30,76-90,WHITE RIVER NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04025500: Flow=268cfs,Stage=2.28ft,2016-05-29 14:15,76-90,BOIS BRULE RIVER AT BRULE, WI 05430500: Flow=1210cfs,Stage=3.81ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:15,10-24,ROCK RIVER AT AFTON, WI 05426250: Flow=60cfs,Stage=2.00ft,Floodstage=4ft,2016-05-29 14:15,10-24,BARK RIVER NEAR ROME, WI 05544200: Flow=51cfs,Stage=2.43ft,Floodstage=5ft,2016-05-29 14:30,25-75,MUKWONAGO RIVER AT MUKWONAGO, WI 05543830: Flow=61cfs,Stage=3.04ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,FOX RIVER AT WAUKESHA, WI 05527800: Flow=64cfs,Stage=4.22ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 13:30,25-75,DES PLAINES RIVER AT RUSSELL, IL 05437500: Flow=3400cfs,Stage=3.23ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 13:30,25-75,ROCK RIVER AT ROCKTON, IL 05437050: Flow=1840cfs,Stage=5.94ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER NR SHIRLAND, ILL 05436500: Flow=429cfs,Stage=1.38ft,Floodstage=5ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,SUGAR RIVER NEAR BRODHEAD, WI 05434500: Flow=863cfs,Stage=6.50ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2016-05-29 14:30,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT MARTINTOWN, WI 05431486: Flow=119cfs,Stage=3.87ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,TURTLE CREEK AT CARVERS ROCK ROAD NEAR CLINTON, WI 05430175: Flow=376cfs,Stage=4.44ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,YAHARA RIVER NEAR FULTON, WI 05430150: Flow=125cfs,Stage=5.05ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,BADFISH CREEK NEAR COOKSVILLE, WI 05429500: Flow=128cfs,Stage=4.35ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,YAHARA RIVER AT MC FARLAND, WI 05427965: Flow=1.4cfs,Stage=0.57ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,SPRING HARBOR STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 05427948: Flow=4.9cfs,Stage=3.55ft,2016-05-29 13:00,25-75,PHEASANT BRANCH AT MIDDLETON, WI 05426000: Flow=368cfs,Stage=2.65ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,CRAWFISH RIVER AT MILFORD, WI 05425912: Flow=160cfs,Stage=840.39ft,Floodstage=843.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,BEAVERDAM RIVER AT BEAVER DAM, WI 05414000: Flow=116cfs,Stage=3.74ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,PLATTE RIVER NEAR ROCKVILLE, WI 05413500: Flow=195cfs,Stage=5.54ft,Floodstage=18ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,GRANT RIVER AT BURTON, WI 05410490: Flow=559cfs,Stage=7.14ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 14:45,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STEUBEN, WI 05407000: Flow=9120cfs,Stage=2.40ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:45,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MUSCODA, WI 05404000: Flow=7330cfs,Stage=4.65ft,Floodstage=16ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER NEAR WISCONSIN DELLS, WI 05403500: Flow=311cfs,Stage=3.82ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,LEMONWEIR RIVER AT NEW LISBON, WI 05402000: Flow=118cfs,Stage=2.94ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,YELLOW RIVER AT BABCOCK, WI 05401050: Flow=86cfs,Stage=5.16ft,2016-05-29 12:45,25-75,TENMILE CREEK NEAR NEKOOSA, WI 05398000: Flow=4520cfs,Stage=14.98ft,Floodstage=25ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT ROTHSCHILD, WI 05397500: Flow=234cfs,Stage=1.13ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,EAU CLAIRE RIVER AT KELLY, WI 05395000: Flow=3440cfs,Stage=5.84ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:30,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MERRILL, WI 05394500: Flow=214cfs,Stage=2.68ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,PRAIRIE RIVER NEAR MERRILL, WI 05391000: Flow=478cfs,Stage=1.59ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER @ RAINBOW LAKE NR LAKE TOMAHAWK,WI 05378500: Flow=42000cfs,2016-05-29 14:15,Stage=6.53ft,2016-05-29 14:45:00,Floodstage=13ft,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MN 05340500: Flow=5860cfs,Stage=4.38ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 04087257: Flow=25cfs,Stage=1.86ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,PIKE RIVER NEAR RACINE, WI 04087240: Flow=132cfs,Stage=3.04ft,Floodstage=7ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER AT RACINE, WI 04087220: Flow=36cfs,Stage=2.64ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087159: Flow=11cfs,Stage=6.34ft,Floodstage=16ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,KINNICKINNIC RIVER @ S. 11TH STREET @ MILWAUKEE,WI 04087088: Flow=17cfs,Stage=3.51ft,2016-05-29 14:05,25-75,UNDERWOOD CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087030: Flow=21cfs,Stage=3.33ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,MENOMONEE RIVER AT MENOMONEE FALLS, WI 04086600: Flow=511cfs,Stage=6.27ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,MILWAUKEE RIVER NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086500: Flow=78cfs,Stage=5.66ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,CEDAR CREEK NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04085427: Flow=152cfs,Stage=4.71ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 12:45,25-75,MANITOWOC RIVER AT MANITOWOC, WI 04079000: Flow=2060cfs,Stage=4.00ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,WOLF RIVER AT NEW LONDON, WI 04074950: Flow=518cfs,Stage=8.24ft,Floodstage=11.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,WOLF RIVER AT LANGLADE, WI 04071000: Flow=534cfs,Stage=1.54ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,OCONTO RIVER NEAR GILLETT, WI 04069500: Flow=815cfs,Stage=2.34ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PESHTIGO, WI 04066800: Flow=4980cfs,Stage=11.61ft,Floodstage=17ft,2016-05-29 12:00,25-75,MENOMINEE RIVER AT KOSS, MI 04066500: Flow=217cfs,Stage=3.06ft,Floodstage=6.5ft,2016-05-29 14:00,25-75,PIKE RIVER AT AMBERG, WI 04063700: Flow=175cfs,Stage=2.97ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,POPPLE RIVER NEAR FENCE, WI 04024430: Flow=351cfs,Stage=6.16ft,2016-05-29 14:15,25-75,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI 464646092052900: Flow=2260cfs,Stage=602.12ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 464226092005600: Stage=10.49ft,2016-05-29 13:05,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY ENTRY CHANNEL AT SUPERIOR, WI 450456092225801: Flow=0.006660cfs,Stage=0.004ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 1 NEAR CYLON, WI 450437092181901: Flow=0.002400cfs,Stage=0.006ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 3 NEAR EMERALD, WI 450115092180101: Flow=0.020000cfs,Stage=0.029ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 2 NR WOODVILLE, WI 445322088281801: Stage=92.97ft,2016-05-29 15:00,Not ranked,BERRY LAKE NEAR SHAWANO, WI 442119088085501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.003ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 4 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 442114088085701: Flow=0.004030cfs,Stage=0.030ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 5 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 441624088045601: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.003ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441546088082001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.038ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 2 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045002: Flow=0.003300cfs,Stage=0.086ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER TILE 1 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.012ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY 3 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 434425090462401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.009ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 6 AT CASHTON, WI 434311090461401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.007ft,2016-05-29 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 4 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434250090461401: Flow=0.006940cfs,Stage=0.013ft,2016-05-29 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 5 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434246090465801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.005ft,2016-05-29 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 3 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434244090470801: Flow=0.005180cfs,Stage=0.013ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 2 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434209090491101: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.014ft,2016-05-29 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 1 NEAR CASHTON, WI 430649089181232: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.02ft,2016-05-29 08:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181231: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.01ft,2016-05-29 08:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181222: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2016-05-29 08:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181221: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2016-05-29 08:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181212: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2016-05-29 08:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181211: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.01ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 DRAIN TILE AT MADISON,WI 430649089181200: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.02ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT INFLUENT AT MADISON, WI 430532089315602: Stage=0.012ft,2016-05-29 12:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-OUTLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430532089315601: Stage=-0.043ft,2016-05-29 12:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-INLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430428089325701: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-06-24 23:00,Not ranked,WEST OLD SAUK ROAD STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089282000: Not ranked,Seasonal site,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430356089183502: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES MIDDLE MADISON, WI 430302089224101: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-08-15 23:45,Not ranked,JOHN NOLEN DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 425715089164700: Stage=3.34ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LAKE KEGONSA AT BARBER DRIVE NEAR STOUGHTON, WI 424848088083100: Stage=8.28ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,WIND LAKE AT OUTLET AT WIND LAKE, WI 424008089050201: Flow=0.002180cfs,Stage=0.012ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 5 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423954089071501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.008ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423525088260400: Stage=2.67ft,2016-05-29 12:00,Not ranked,GENEVA LAKE AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 0402403250: Stage=16.04ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,St. Louis River at Oliver, WI. 055451345: Flow=55cfs,Stage=8.66ft,2016-05-29 12:00,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER AT CENTER STREET AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 054279465: Flow=1.0cfs,Stage=2.88ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,S FORK PHEASANT BRANCH @ DEMING WAY @ MIDDLETON,WI 053813595: Flow=2410cfs,Stage=38.30ft,Floodstage=47ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER DS ST HWY 54 AT BLACK RIVER FALLS, WI 053674967: Flow=24cfs,Stage=4.36ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,TROUT CREEK AT TENTH STREET NEAR BLOOMER, WI 053416966: Flow=1.8cfs,Stage=3.15ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DRY RUN AT 190TH STREET NEAR JEWETT, WI 040871488: Flow=8.0cfs,Stage=11.34ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CK @ ST. LUKES HOSPITAL @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.10ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,HOLMES AVE CRK TRIB @ GMIA OUTFALL #1 AT MILWAUKEE 040871475: Flow=1.5cfs,Stage=10.98ft,2016-05-29 14:20,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK @ GMIA OUTFALL #7 @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871473: Flow=0.67cfs,Stage=10.73ft,2016-05-29 12:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK AT GMIA INFALL AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040869416: Flow=12cfs,Stage=3.91ft,2016-05-29 14:05,Not ranked,LINCOLN CREEK @ SHERMAN BOULEVARD AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040857005: Flow=10cfs,Stage=4.60ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,OTTER CREEK AT WILLOW ROAD NEAR PLYMOUTH, WI 040854592: Flow=9.1cfs,Stage=4.12ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,FISHER CREEK AT HOWARDS GROVE, WI 040851385: Flow=1730cfs,Stage=580.64ft,Floodstage=584ft,2016-05-29 14:20,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OIL TANK DEPOT AT GREEN BAY, WI 040734605: Flow=74cfs,Stage=6.78ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,GREEN LAKE SW INLET @ CT HIGHWY K NR GREEN LAKE,WI 040263205: Flow=33cfs,Stage=1.63ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,WHITTLESEY CREEK NEAR ASHLAND, WI 05548170: Flow=17cfs,2013-10-01 00:00,Not ranked,NORTH BRANCH NIPPERSINK CREEK AT GENOA CITY, WI 05548000: Stage=4.13ft,2016-05-29 13:30,Not ranked,NIPPERSINK LAKE AT FOX LAKE, IL 05547500: Stage=4.24ft,2016-05-29 13:45,Not ranked,FOX LAKE NEAR LAKE VILLA, IL 05547000: Stage=4.35ft,2016-05-29 13:30,Not ranked,CHANNEL LAKE NEAR ANTIOCH, IL 05545750: Flow=470cfs,Stage=6.33ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER NEAR NEW MUNSTER, WI 05544475: Stage=4.76ft,Floodstage=6ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT ROCHESTER, WI 05544385: Stage=11.70ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,MUSKEGO (BIG MUSKEGO) LAKE OUTLET NR WIND LAKE, WI 05544348: Stage=1.68ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT WATERFORD DAM, AT WATERFORD, WI 05527950: Flow=46cfs,Stage=7.03ft,2016-05-29 13:45,Not ranked,MILL CREEK AT OLD MILL CREEK, IL 05527910: Flow=21cfs,Stage=17.16ft,2016-05-29 13:30,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK NEAR MILBURN, IL 05527905: Flow=12cfs,Stage=11.87ft,2016-05-29 13:30,Not ranked,HASTINGS CREEK NEAR LINDENHURST, IL 05527900: Flow=16cfs,Stage=9.01ft,2016-05-29 13:45,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK AT HICKORY CORNERS, IL 05438283: Flow=3.1cfs,Stage=4.93ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,PISCASAW CREEK NEAR WALWORTH, WI 05435950: Flow=68cfs,Stage=3.52ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,SUGAR RIVER NEAR VERONA, WI 05435943: Flow=15cfs,Stage=4.50ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,BADGER MILL CREEK AT VERONA, WI 05432927: Flow=29cfs,Stage=10.37ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,PLEASANT VALLEY CREEK @ CTH H NR BLANCHARDVILLE,WI 05432695: Flow=28cfs,Stage=8.03ft,2016-05-29 14:05,Not ranked,RIDGEWAY BRANCH NEAR HOLLANDALE, WI 05431016: Flow=12cfs,Stage=8.57ft,2016-05-29 13:30,Not ranked,JACKSON CREEK AT MOUND ROAD NEAR ELKHORN, WI 05429700: Flow=186cfs,Stage=6.55ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER @ FORTON STREET BRIDGE @ STOUGHTON,WI 05429485: Stage=4.86ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LAKE WAUBESA AT MC FARLAND, WI 05429000: Stage=4.99ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LAKE MONONA AT MADISON, WI 05428500: Flow=121cfs,Stage=5.19ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT EAST MAIN STREET AT MADISON, WI 05428000: Stage=9.91ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON, WI 05427943: Flow=1.5cfs,Stage=3.28ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,PHEASANT BRANCH AT AIRPORT ROAD NEAR MIDDLETON, WI 05427930: Flow=5.0cfs,Stage=10.51ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK AT CT HIGHWAY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427927: Flow=6.7cfs,Stage=2.14ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK @ CT HIGHWAY Q NR WAUNAKEE, WI 05427910: Flow=18cfs,Stage=10.06ft,2016-05-29 14:05,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK @ COUNTY TRNK HGHWY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427880: Flow=18cfs,Stage=3.06ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 19 NEAR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427850: Flow=56cfs,Stage=10.01ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 113 AT MADISON, WI 05427530: Flow=457cfs,Stage=2.75ft,Floodstage=6.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT NEWVILLE, WI 05427235: Stage=6.61ft,Floodstage=10ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,LAKE KOSHKONONG NEAR NEWVILLE, WI 05427085: Flow=756cfs,Stage=11.70ft,Floodstage=16ft,2016-05-29 13:55,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT ROBERT STREET AT FORT ATKINSON, WI 05426380: Flow=3.9cfs,Stage=0.95ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,PARADISE SPRINGS CREEK NEAR EAGLE, WI 05426350: Flow=3.0cfs,Stage=0.33ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,SCUPPERNONG RIVER UPSTREAM OF MARL PIT NR EAGLE,WI 05426067: Flow=23cfs,Stage=12.57ft,2016-05-29 10:00,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT NAGAWICKA ROAD AT DELAFIELD, WI 05425500: Flow=505cfs,Stage=2.15ft,Floodstage=5.5ft,2016-05-28 15:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT WATERTOWN, WI 05424057: Flow=293cfs,Stage=6.48ft,Floodstage=8.5ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT HORICON, WI 05411500: Stage=12.44ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,Mississippi River at Clayton, IA 05408480: Flow=3.1cfs,Stage=2.70ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,W FORK KICKAPOO R AT PEACEFUL VALLEY RD NR CASHTON 05407470: Flow=86cfs,Stage=8.55ft,Floodstage=16ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 33 AT ONTARIO, WI 05406479: Flow=40cfs,Stage=3.33ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CK NR TREATMENT PLNT @ CROSS PLAINS,WI 05406469: Flow=2.1cfs,Stage=2.31ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,BREWERY CREEK-UPSTREAM SITE-AT CROSS PLAINS, WI 05406457: Flow=14cfs,Stage=2.26ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CREEK NR BREWERY RD AT CROSS PLAINS,WI 05404500: Stage=8.91ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DEVILS LAKE NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403000: Flow=325cfs,Stage=10.26ft,Floodstage=15ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT NECEDAH, WI 05400625: Flow=8.1cfs,Stage=3.50ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LITTLE PLOVER RIVER NEAR PLOVER, WI 05390685: Flow=12cfs,Stage=11.43ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,MUSKELLUNGE CREEK NEAR ST. GERMAIN, WI 05390500: Stage=90.88ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,ANVIL LAKE NEAR EAGLE RIVER, WI 05389500: Flow=21700cfs,2013-10-30 00:00,Stage=8.82ft,2016-05-29 14:45:00,Floodstage=16ft,Not ranked,Mississippi River at McGregor, IA 05389400: Flow=27cfs,Stage=4.13ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,Bloody Run Creek near Marquette, IA 05389000: Flow=220cfs,Stage=5.70ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,Yellow River near Ion, IA 05386400: Stage=31.19ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383075: Flow=478cfs,Stage=3.29ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05382325: Flow=182cfs,Stage=3.53ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER AT SPARTA, WI 05382284: Flow=43cfs,Stage=5.86ft,2016-05-29 14:10,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 21 NEAR ANGELO, WI 05382267: Flow=90cfs,Stage=6.81ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWY BB NR TOMAH,WI 05382257: Flow=3.1cfs,Stage=1.91ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT YARD ROAD NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382255: Flow=1.9cfs,Stage=2.39ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT SIXTEENTH COURT NEAR TOMAH, WI 05379400: Flow=522cfs,Stage=3.66ft,Floodstage=8ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT ARCADIA, WI 05378490: Stage=7.34ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LOCK AND DAM 5A NR WINONA, MN 05370000: Flow=32cfs,Stage=12.57ft,2016-05-29 09:00,Not ranked,EAU GALLE RIVER AT SPRING VALLEY, WI 05366800: Flow=17500cfs,Stage=9.19ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA R AT GRAND AVE BRIDGE AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05365550: Flow=15300cfs,Stage=10.98ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER BELOW DELLS DAM AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05357335: Flow=169cfs,Stage=4.35ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,BEAR RIVER NEAR MANITOWISH WATERS, WI 05357245: Flow=72cfs,Stage=1.68ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,TROUT RIVER AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357230: Flow=7.2cfs,Stage=8.30ft,2016-05-29 12:30,Not ranked,NORTH CREEK AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357225: Flow=8.6cfs,Stage=8.41ft,2016-05-29 12:15,Not ranked,STEVENSON CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357215: Flow=23cfs,Stage=1.72ft,2016-05-29 12:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357206: Flow=12cfs,Stage=0.87ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK SITE NO. 3 NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05344500: Stage=26.94ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,Very low value,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05344490: Flow=6500cfs,Stage=26.96ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=111cfs,Stage=10.51ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341752: Flow=170cfs,Stage=4.00ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ WILLOW R STATE PARK NR BURKHARDT,WI 05331833: Flow=312cfs,Stage=2.51ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,NAMEKAGON RIVER AT LEONARDS, WI 04087214: Flow=13cfs,Stage=10.94ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT GRANGE AVENUE AT GREENFIELD, WI 04087170: Flow=-4120cfs,Stage=9.89ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MOUTH AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087142: Flow=58cfs,Stage=14.61ft,2016-05-29 14:10,Not ranked,MENOMONEE RIVER AT 16TH STREET AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087119: Flow=4.9cfs,Stage=10.36ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,HONEY CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087070: Flow=12cfs,Stage=4.32ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087050: Flow=4.7cfs,Stage=2.18ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER NEAR FREISTADT, WI 04085108: Flow=4.3cfs,Stage=4.67ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,EAST RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY ZZ NR GREENLEAF,WI 04085082: Stage=580.91ft,2016-05-29 14:50,Not ranked,FOX RIVER DS FROM DUTCHMAN CREEK AT GREEN BAY, WI 04085062: Stage=581.09ft,2016-05-29 14:33,Not ranked,FOX RIVER S OF FOX POINT BOAT LAUNCH @ DE PERE, WI 04085061: Stage=581.34ft,2016-05-18 06:48,Not ranked,FOX RIVER S OF BROWN CTY FAIRGROUNDS @ DE PERE, WI 04084927: Flow=1.2cfs,Stage=3.35ft,2016-05-29 13:00,Not ranked,WEST PLUM CREEK AT NEW ROAD NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084911: Flow=2.3cfs,Stage=2.38ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,PLUM CREEK NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084445: Flow=4165cfs,Stage=5.94ft,Floodstage=8.4ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT APPLETON, WI 04084255: Stage=2.98ft,2016-05-29 12:05,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, WI 04082500: Stage=2.97ft,Floodstage=3.5ft,2016-05-29 12:45,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO AT OSHKOSH, WI 04082400: Flow=13000cfs,Stage=6.31ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OSHKOSH, WI 04080798: Flow=40cfs,Stage=8.82ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,TOMORROW RIVER NEAR NELSONVILLE, WI 04077630: Flow=206cfs,Stage=6.37ft,Floodstage=11ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,RED RIVER AT MORGAN ROAD NEAR MORGAN, WI 04073466: Flow=67cfs,Stage=7.27ft,2016-05-29 14:05,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT SPAULDING ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073458: Flow=3.7cfs,Stage=4.89ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,ROY CREEK AT ROY CREEK ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073365: Flow=1160cfs,Stage=6.18ft,Floodstage=9.5ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT PRINCETON, WI 04072150: Flow=85cfs,Stage=12.19ft,Floodstage=18ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,DUCK CREEK NEAR HOWARD, WI 04072076: Flow=3.9cfs,Stage=2.98ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT FLORIST DRIVE AT ONEIDA, WI 04071765: Flow=637cfs,Stage=4.90ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,OCONTO RIVER NEAR OCONTO, WI 04069416: Flow=889cfs,Stage=8.46ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PORTERFIELD, WI 04067958: Flow=527cfs,Stage=4.64ft,Floodstage=9ft,2016-05-29 12:45,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER NEAR WABENO, WI 04066030: Flow=5180cfs,2016-05-29 14:30,Floodstage=14ft,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT WHITE RAPIDS DAM NEAR BANAT, MI 04065106: Flow=4450cfs,Stage=8.59ft,Floodstage=13ft,2016-05-29 14:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT NIAGARA, WI 04063500: Flow=3140cfs,Stage=8.30ft,Floodstage=20.5ft,2016-05-27 22:30,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT TWIN FALLS NEAR IRON MT, MI 04062011: Flow=1030cfs,Stage=7.61ft,Floodstage=12ft,2016-05-29 15:30,Not ranked,BRULE RIVER NEAR COMMONWEALTH, WI 04037400: Stage=4.23ft,2016-05-29 14:45,Not ranked,CISCO LAKE NEAR WATERSMEET, MI 04026859: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,POTATO RIVER AT UPSON, WI 04026561: Flow=272cfs,Stage=5.43ft,2016-05-29 14:30,Not ranked,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT STRICKER ROAD NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026511: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,BAD RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 169 NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026390: Flow=84cfs,Stage=7.23ft,2016-05-29 14:00,Not ranked,BEARTRAP CREEK AT U.S. HIGHWAY 2 NEAR ASHLAND, WI Go to WaterWatch (offsite) for a larger map with additional options