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Non-point Evaluation Studies

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Evaluating chloride trends due to road-salt use and its impacts on water quality and aquatic organisms


Principal Investigators: Steve Corsi, Laura De Cicco (USGS CIDA), Michelle Lutz, Robert Hirsch (USGS NRP)
Cooperators: Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (Matthew T. Magruder)


As part of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Corridor Study, USGS scientists have been analyzing temporal, seasonal, and environmental trends in chloride concentrations across the U.S. to determine the effects that road salt may be having on water quality and aquatic organisms.


Chloride, a key component of road salt (along with sodium), is soluble, highly mobile in water, and, at high concentrations, can be toxic to aquatic vegetation and wildlife. Increasing trends in chloride concentrations have been observed in water bodies of the U.S. and attributed, at least in part, to road salt influence. Road deicing by cities, counties and state agencies accounts for a significant portion of salt applications, but salt is also used by many public and private organizations and individuals to deice parking lots, walkways and driveways. All of these sources are likely to contribute to these increasing chloride concentrations.


Trends in stream chloride concentrations due to road-salt use

This study has resulted in two influential journal articles. The most recent article, published in December 2014 in Science of the Total Environment, focused on defining temporal trends in chloride concentrations in relation to streamflow rates, and comparing these trends to changes in seasonality, urban land cover, aquatic life criteria, and road salt sales patterns. USGS scientists used chloride data from 30 monitoring sites on 19 streams near cities in Wisconsin, Illinois, Colorado, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Texas and the District of Columbia to explore the relationship between urban land cover, use of road salt, and stream chloride concentrations (fig. 1). They found that in 84 percent of urban streams studied, chloride concentrations related to road salt increased substantially over the study period (the study period was variable depending on availability at individual sites, but started as early as 1960 and ended in 2011). Numerous streams in the study exceeded concentrations that are toxic to aquatic life (figures 2 and 3). Concentrations were highest during the winter, but increased during all seasons over time at the northern sites, including sites near Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Chicago, Illinois; Denver, Colorado; and other metropolitan areas.

FAQ button

  Figure 1. Study site locations and watershed characteristics.
Figure 2. Winter (black line) and summer (grey line) flow-normalized chloride concentration trends for 30 sites in 19 streams across the United States. The background color represents watershed percent imperviousness as determined using the National Land Cover Database from 2006 (Fry et al. 2011). Sites are ordered by percent imperviousness. Seiche affected is defined by backwater influence from Lake Michigan. Figure 3. Chloride concentration estimates at 10, 50, and 90 percentile flow rates from the WRTDS model over time and grouped by season for three Milwaukee streams. Graphs are presented in order of decreasing watershed size and increasing urban land cover from left to right. Streamflow is expressed in cubic meters per second (cms). Dashed line for USEPA chronic water quality criteria represents 230 mg/L.

Other key findings from this study:

Twenty-nine percent of the sites exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency chronic water-quality criteria (230 milligrams per liter) by an average of more than 100 days per year from

2006 through 2011 (fig. 4B), including sites in on the Menomonee and Kinnickinnic Rivers near Milwaukee and Poplar Creek near Chicago.

  • Streams with the lowest chloride concentrations were located in watersheds with small amounts of urban land cover, like Willamette, Oregon, or those receiving little snowfall, such as Dallas, Texas.
  • In 16 of the streams, winter chloride contamination concentrations increased over the study period.
  • In 13 of the streams, chloride concentrations increased over the study period even during non-deicing periods such as summer, suggesting that chloride infiltrated into the shallow groundwater system in the winter and was slowly released to the streams throughout the year as baseflow.
  • Chloride concentrations increased more rapidly than development of urban land near the study sites (fig. 4A), implying an increase in road salt application rates and not simply an increase due to an expansion of paved surfaces that required deicing.
  • Overall, increasing trends in chloride concentrations were likely caused by increased salt application rates, increased baseline conditions (the concentrations during summer low-flow periods) and greater snowfall in the Midwest during the latter part of the study
Figure 4. Average chloride concentration (A) and expected number of individual days per year with concentration exceeding the USEPA chronic water quality criteria of 230 mg/L (B) from modeling results compared to urban land cover percentage in the contributing watershed.

 

Impacts of road-salt runoff on water-quality and aquatic organisms

The earlier journal article, published in September 2010 in Environmental Science and Technology, investigated the influence of road-salt runoff on surface water and aquatic organisms at multiple spatial scales: national, regional (southeast Wisconsin), and local (Milwaukee). The influence of urban development was also examined in this study.

For the national perspective, USGS scientists used historical data from over 14,000 individual chloride water-quality samples collected in 17 major metropolitan areas around the country between 1969 and 2008. Regionally, they used continuous specific conductance sensors as an indicator of road-salt runoff, monitoring 11 streams in southeast Wisconsin during both warm- and cold-weather periods from 1998 to 2008. To evaluate local conditions, they used data from 14 Milwaukee-area streams during road-salt application periods in 2007 for chloride concentrations and/or specific conductance, and performed bioassays using Pimephales promelas and Ceriodaphnia dubia

Key findings from this study:

Nationally: During the winter, samples from fifty-five percent of northern streams in this study had chloride levels that exceeded USEPA chronic water-quality criteria, indicating potential toxicity. Samples from twenty-five percent of the streams exceeded acute water-quality criteria.

Regionally: In southeast Wisconsin, potential toxicity was found during winter at all urban streams studied, with lingering effects at some streams in the summer.

  • During winter, 100 percent of the streams monitored had chloride levels that exceeded the USEPA chronic water quality criteria in one or more samples with fifty-five percent of samples exceeding acute water quality criteria.
  • Chloride levels higher than 10,000 milligrams per liter were observed at times during winter deicing periods—much greater than the chronic water-quality criteria of 230 milligrams per liter and the acute criteria of 860 milligrams per liter.
  • Chloride levels increased as urbanization percentage in the watershed increased.


Locally: In Milwaukee, more than half of the samples collected from streams during winter deicing periods were toxic.

  • Samples from seven of 13 streams collected during 2007 deicing periods were toxic in bioassay tests.
  • Chloride levels in 12 out of these 13 streams exceeded USEPA chronic water quality criteria; eight of 13 exceeded acute criteria.
  • In long-term testing of one Milwaukee stream between 1997 and 2008, seventy-two percent of the 38 samples collected during the winter were toxic in bioassay tests.

The Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene co-authored this paper and did the bioassay testing involved. Additionally, this portion of the study was conducted in cooperation with both the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and General Mitchell International Airport.


Publications

River chloride trends in snow-affected urban watersheds: increasing concentrations outpace urban growth rate and are common among all seasons (2014)
Steven R. Corsi, Laura A. De Cicco, Michelle, A. Lutz, and Robert M. Hirsch Science of The Total Environment, 2015, vol. 508, p. 488-497 Released online Dec. 15, 2014, DOI: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.012

The increasing impact of road salt: Long-term chloride trends in streams of the northern United States
Steven R. Corsi, Laura A. De Cicco, and Michelle A. Lutz
Poster given at SETAC North America 34th Annual Meeting, November 17-21, 2013, in Nashville, TN

A Fresh Look at Road Salt: Aquatic Toxicity and Water-Quality Impacts on Local, Regional, and National Scales (2010)
Steven R. Corsi, David J. Graczyk, Steven W. Geis, Nathaniel L. Booth, and Kevin D. Richards
Environmnetal Science and Technology, 2010, vol. 44, n. 19, p. 7376-7382
Released online Sept. 1, 2010, DOI: 10.1021/es101333u

 

Other road salt resources

Impacts of deicers: Priority Substances List Assessment Report for Road Salts (Environment Canada) Effects of Road Salts on Aquatic Ecosystems (Environment Canada)

Strategies to Mitigate Impacts of Chloride Deicers on the Natural Environment (Transportation Research Board/National Cooperative Highway Research Program)

Road salt citation library (Zotero)

 

Related USGS publications

Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9
2012, Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.
USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2012-5205

Preliminary assessment of chloride concentrations, loads, and yields in selected watersheds along the Interstate 95 corridor, southeastern Connecticut, 2008-09
2011, Brown, Craig J.; Mullaney, John R.; Morrison, Jonathan; Mondazzi, Remo
USGS Open-File Report: 2011-1018

Effects of Highway Road Salting on the Water Quality of Selected Streams in Chittenden County, Vermont, November 2005-2007

2010, Denner, Jon C.; Clark, Stewart F.; Smith, Thor E.; Medalie, Laura
USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2009-5236

Using chloride and other ions to trace sewage and road salt in the Illinois Waterway
2010, Walton R. Kelly, Samuel V. Panno, Keith C. Hackley, Hue-Hwa Hwang, Adam T. Martinsek, Momcilo Markus
Applied Geochemistry, Volume 25, Issue 5, May 2010, Pages 661–673

Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States
2009, Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.
USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2009-5086

Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio--final report

2004, Kunze, Allison E.; Sroka, Bernard N.
USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2004-5150

Use of borehole and surface geophysics to investigate ground-water quality near a road-deicing salt-storage facility, Valparaiso, Indiana
2001, Risch, M.R.; Robinson, B.A.
USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report: 2000-4070

Estimating Concentrations of Road-Salt Constituents in Highway-Runoff from Measurements of Specific Conductance
1999, Granato, Gregory E.; Smith, Kirk P.
USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report: 99-4077

Movement of road salt to a small New Hampshire lake
1999, Rosenberry, D.O.; Bukaveckas, P.A.; Buso, D.C.; Likens, G.E.; Shapiro, A.M.; Winter, T.C.
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, January 1999, Volume 109, Issue 1-4, pp 179-206

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology
1996, Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.
USGS Open-File Report: 96-317

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing road-salt contamination of ground water, southeastern Massachusetts
1996, Church, Peter E.
USGS Fact Sheet: 115-96

Changes in chloride concentrations, mixing patterns, and stratification characteristics of Irondequoit Bay, Monroe County, New York, after decreased use of road-deicing salts, 1974-1984
1989, Bubeck, R.C.; Burton, R.S.
USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report: 87-4223

 

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CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 05333500: Flow=2040cfs,Stage=2.08ft,2017-03-10 12:30,>90,ST. 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Flow=155cfs,Stage=4.88ft,Floodstage=7ft,2017-03-10 12:30,25-75,DES PLAINES RIVER AT RUSSELL, IL 05437050: Flow=3190cfs,Stage=8.18ft,Floodstage=12ft,2017-03-10 13:00,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER NR SHIRLAND, ILL 05436500: Flow=610cfs,Stage=2.01ft,Floodstage=5ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,SUGAR RIVER NEAR BRODHEAD, WI 05434500: Flow=1240cfs,Stage=7.88ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2017-03-10 12:30,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT MARTINTOWN, WI 05433000: Flow=257cfs,Stage=5.65ft,Floodstage=11ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,EAST BRANCH PECATONICA RIVER NR BLANCHARDVILLE, WI 05432500: Flow=309cfs,Stage=3.87ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT DARLINGTON, WI 05431486: Flow=146cfs,Stage=3.97ft,Floodstage=8ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,TURTLE CREEK AT CARVERS ROCK ROAD NEAR CLINTON, WI 05430150: Flow=151cfs,Stage=5.09ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,BADFISH CREEK NEAR COOKSVILLE, WI 05427965: Flow=0.25cfs,Stage=0.44ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,SPRING HARBOR STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 05427948: Flow=5.7cfs,Stage=3.63ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,PHEASANT BRANCH AT MIDDLETON, WI 05427718: Flow=37cfs,Stage=1.24ft,Floodstage=8ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,YAHARA RIVER AT WINDSOR, WI 05414820: Flow=26cfs,Stage=4.85ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,SINSINAWA RIVER NEAR MENOMINEE, IL 05410490: Flow=827cfs,Stage=8.85ft,Floodstage=12ft,2017-03-10 12:45,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STEUBEN, WI 05406500: Flow=30cfs,Stage=2.14ft,Floodstage=7ft,2017-03-10 10:45,25-75,BLACK EARTH CREEK AT BLACK EARTH, WI 04087257: Flow=27cfs,Stage=1.94ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,PIKE RIVER NEAR RACINE, WI 04087240: Flow=150cfs,Stage=3.13ft,Floodstage=7ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER AT RACINE, WI 04087233: Flow=49cfs,Stage=3.52ft,Floodstage=9ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER CANAL NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087220: Flow=29cfs,Stage=2.46ft,Floodstage=8ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087204: Flow=16cfs,Stage=2.58ft,Floodstage=8ft,2017-03-10 12:00,25-75,OAK CREEK AT SOUTH MILWAUKEE, WI 04087120: Flow=147cfs,Stage=2.32ft,Floodstage=11ft,2017-03-10 12:20,25-75,MENOMONEE RIVER AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087088: Flow=11cfs,2017-03-10 11:00,Stage=13.33ft,2016-12-31 09:55:00,25-75,UNDERWOOD CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087030: Flow=48cfs,Stage=3.74ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2017-03-10 12:15,25-75,MENOMONEE RIVER AT MENOMONEE FALLS, WI 04085200: Flow=174cfs,Stage=9.75ft,Floodstage=14ft,2017-03-10 10:45,25-75,KEWAUNEE RIVER NEAR KEWAUNEE, WI 464646092052900: Flow=13700cfs,Stage=601.55ft,2017-03-10 11:55,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 464226092005600: Flow=8560cfs,Stage=601.60ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY ENTRY CHANNEL AT SUPERIOR, WI 463741090521301: Stage=0.76ft,2017-03-10 11:58,Not ranked,ASHLAND BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSE CHEQUAMEGON BAY, WI 455430089550001: Stage=11.45ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,HASKELL LAKE AT LAC DU FLAMBEAU, WI 450456092225801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.000ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 1 NEAR CYLON, WI 450437092181901: Stage=0.000ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,Very low value,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 3 NEAR EMERALD, WI 450115092180101: Flow=0.008620cfs,Stage=0.019ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 2 NR WOODVILLE, WI 445322088281801: Stage=93.70ft,2017-03-10 13:00,Not ranked,BERRY LAKE NEAR SHAWANO, WI 442119088085501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.030ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 4 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 442114088085701: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.007ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 5 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 441624088045601: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.022ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441546088082001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.046ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 2 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045002: Flow=0.029850cfs,Stage=0.211ft,2017-03-10 12:05,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER TILE 1 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.000ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY 3 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 434425090462401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.005ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 6 AT CASHTON, WI 434311090461401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.003ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 4 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434250090461401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.003ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 5 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434246090465801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.033ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 3 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434244090470801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.000ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 2 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434209090491101: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.016ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 1 NEAR CASHTON, WI 430649089181232: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.02ft,2017-03-10 06:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181231: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2017-03-10 06:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181222: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2017-03-10 06:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181221: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2017-03-10 06:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181212: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2017-03-10 06:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181211: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 DRAIN TILE AT MADISON,WI 430649089181200: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.07ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT INFLUENT AT MADISON, WI 430532089315602: Stage=0.016ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-OUTLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430532089315601: Stage=-0.044ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-INLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430428089325701: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-06-24 23:00,Not ranked,WEST OLD SAUK ROAD STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089282000: Not ranked,Seasonal site,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430356089183502: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES MIDDLE MADISON, WI 430302089224101: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-08-15 23:45,Not ranked,JOHN NOLEN DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 425715089164700: Stage=3.21ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,LAKE KEGONSA AT BARBER DRIVE NEAR STOUGHTON, WI 424848088083100: Stage=8.07ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,WIND LAKE AT OUTLET AT WIND LAKE, WI 424008089050201: Flow=0.001000cfs,Stage=0.001ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 5 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423954089071501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.015ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423740088592701: Flow=0.00360cfs,Stage=0.014ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWY AR1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423645088595501: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.020ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWY AR2 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423525088260400: Stage=2.58ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,GENEVA LAKE AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 0402403250: Flow=6820cfs,Stage=601.97ft,2017-03-10 12:05,Not ranked,St. Louis River at Oliver, WI. 055451345: Flow=41cfs,Stage=8.40ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER AT CENTER STREET AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 054279465: Flow=0.65cfs,Stage=2.86ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,S FORK PHEASANT BRANCH @ DEMING WAY @ MIDDLETON,WI 053813595: Flow=3170cfs,Stage=39.14ft,Floodstage=47ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER DS ST HWY 54 AT BLACK RIVER FALLS, WI 053674967: Flow=21cfs,Stage=4.27ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,TROUT CREEK AT TENTH STREET NEAR BLOOMER, WI 053416966: Flow=7.4cfs,Stage=3.38ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DRY RUN AT 190TH STREET NEAR JEWETT, WI 040871488: Flow=5.0cfs,Stage=11.15ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CK @ ST. LUKES HOSPITAL @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.10ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,HOLMES AVE CRK TRIB @ GMIA OUTFALL #1 AT MILWAUKEE 040871475: Flow=1.1cfs,Stage=10.92ft,2017-03-10 12:20,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK @ GMIA OUTFALL #7 @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871473: Flow=0.26cfs,Stage=10.68ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK AT GMIA INFALL AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040869416: Flow=4.9cfs,Stage=3.71ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,LINCOLN CREEK @ SHERMAN BOULEVARD AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040857005: Flow=15cfs,Stage=4.78ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,OTTER CREEK AT WILLOW ROAD NEAR PLYMOUTH, WI 040854592: Flow=17cfs,Stage=4.36ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,FISHER CREEK AT HOWARDS GROVE, WI 040851385: Flow=16100cfs,Stage=578.92ft,Floodstage=584ft,2017-03-10 12:20,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OIL TANK DEPOT AT GREEN BAY, WI 040734605: Flow=69cfs,Stage=6.34ft,2017-03-10 09:00,Not ranked,GREEN LAKE SW INLET @ CT HIGHWY K NR GREEN LAKE,WI 040263205: Flow=20cfs,Stage=1.35ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,WHITTLESEY CREEK NEAR ASHLAND, WI 05548170: Flow=17cfs,2013-09-30 23:45,Not ranked,NORTH BRANCH NIPPERSINK CREEK AT GENOA CITY, WI 05548000: Stage=3.52ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,NIPPERSINK LAKE AT FOX LAKE, IL 05547500: Stage=3.53ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,FOX LAKE NEAR LAKE VILLA, IL 05547000: Stage=3.51ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,CHANNEL LAKE NEAR ANTIOCH, IL 05545750: Flow=1050cfs,Stage=8.06ft,Floodstage=11ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER NEAR NEW MUNSTER, WI 05544475: Stage=4.71ft,Floodstage=6ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT ROCHESTER, WI 05544385: Stage=12.05ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,MUSKEGO (BIG MUSKEGO) LAKE OUTLET NR WIND LAKE, WI 05544348: Stage=1.58ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT WATERFORD DAM, AT WATERFORD, WI 05527950: Flow=88cfs,Stage=7.96ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,MILL CREEK AT OLD MILL CREEK, IL 05527910: Flow=46cfs,Stage=17.68ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK NEAR MILBURN, IL 05527905: Flow=12cfs,Stage=11.29ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,HASTINGS CREEK NEAR LINDENHURST, IL 05527900: Flow=15cfs,Stage=9.46ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK AT HICKORY CORNERS, IL 05438283: Flow=2.6cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,PISCASAW CREEK NEAR WALWORTH, WI 05435950: Flow=79cfs,Stage=3.49ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,SUGAR RIVER NEAR VERONA, WI 05435943: Flow=13cfs,Stage=4.41ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,BADGER MILL CREEK AT VERONA, WI 05431016: Flow=18cfs,Stage=8.67ft,2017-03-10 08:45,Not ranked,JACKSON CREEK AT MOUND ROAD NEAR ELKHORN, WI 05429700: Flow=541cfs,Stage=6.30ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER @ FORTON STREET BRIDGE @ STOUGHTON,WI 05429485: Stage=4.87ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,LAKE WAUBESA AT MC FARLAND, WI 05429000: Stage=5.15ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE MONONA AT MADISON, WI 05428500: Flow=260cfs,Stage=5.44ft,2017-03-10 12:05,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT EAST MAIN STREET AT MADISON, WI 05428000: Stage=10.19ft,2017-03-10 11:45,Not ranked,LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON, WI 05427943: Flow=3.5cfs,Stage=3.46ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,PHEASANT BRANCH AT AIRPORT ROAD NEAR MIDDLETON, WI 05427930: Flow=10cfs,Stage=10.47ft,2017-03-10 12:05,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK AT CT HIGHWAY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427927: Flow=8.1cfs,Stage=2.15ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK @ CT HIGHWAY Q NR WAUNAKEE, WI 05427910: Flow=48cfs,Stage=10.20ft,2017-03-10 12:10,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK @ COUNTY TRNK HGHWY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427880: Flow=19cfs,Stage=3.16ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 19 NEAR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427850: Flow=155cfs,Stage=10.26ft,2017-03-10 12:10,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 113 AT MADISON, WI 05427530: Flow=6000cfs,Stage=5.50ft,Floodstage=6.5ft,2017-03-10 12:10,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT NEWVILLE, WI 05427235: Stage=9.33ft,Floodstage=10ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,LAKE KOSHKONONG NEAR NEWVILLE, WI 05427085: Flow=5000cfs,Stage=14.80ft,Floodstage=16ft,2017-03-10 11:55,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT ROBERT STREET AT FORT ATKINSON, WI 05426380: Flow=2.0cfs,Stage=0.67ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,PARADISE SPRINGS CREEK NEAR EAGLE, WI 05426350: Flow=2.9cfs,Stage=0.29ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,SCUPPERNONG RIVER UPSTREAM OF MARL PIT NR EAGLE,WI 05426250: Stage=2.50ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Floodstage=4ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BARK RIVER NEAR ROME, WI 05426067: Flow=41cfs,Stage=12.77ft,2017-03-10 11:45,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT NAGAWICKA ROAD AT DELAFIELD, WI 05426000: Stage=5.96ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Floodstage=7ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,CRAWFISH RIVER AT MILFORD, WI 05424057: Flow=1680cfs,2017-03-10 11:55,Stage=7.67ft,2017-03-10 12:00:00,Floodstage=8.5ft,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT HORICON, WI 05411500: Stage=15.49ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,Mississippi River at Clayton, IA 05408480: Flow=4.8cfs,Stage=2.88ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,W FORK KICKAPOO R AT PEACEFUL VALLEY RD NR CASHTON 05407470: Flow=101cfs,Stage=8.69ft,Floodstage=16ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 33 AT ONTARIO, WI 05406479: Flow=28cfs,Stage=2.96ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CK NR TREATMENT PLNT @ CROSS PLAINS,WI 05406469: Flow=2.5cfs,Stage=2.31ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,BREWERY CREEK-UPSTREAM SITE-AT CROSS PLAINS, WI 05406457: Flow=12cfs,Stage=2.16ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CREEK NR BREWERY RD AT CROSS PLAINS,WI 05404500: Stage=9.14ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,DEVILS LAKE NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403000: Flow=2560cfs,Stage=14.46ft,Floodstage=15ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT NECEDAH, WI 05400625: Stage=3.65ft,2017-03-10 12:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,LITTLE PLOVER RIVER NEAR PLOVER, WI 05397500: Stage=2.35ft,2017-03-10 12:00:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,EAU CLAIRE RIVER AT KELLY, WI 05395000: Flow=4760cfs,Stage=6.62ft,Floodstage=11ft,2017-03-09 09:30,Not ranked,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MERRILL, WI 05393500: Stage=3.08ft,2017-03-10 12:00:00,Floodstage=8ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,SPIRIT RIVER AT SPIRIT FALLS, WI 05392187: Stage=10.83ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,Tower Creek at Lac du Flambeau, WI 05390500: Stage=91.25ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,ANVIL LAKE NEAR EAGLE RIVER, WI 05389500: Flow=24000cfs,2013-10-29 23:45,Stage=13.12ft,2017-03-10 12:45:00,Floodstage=16ft,Not ranked,Mississippi River at McGregor, IA 05389400: Flow=37cfs,Stage=4.13ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,Bloody Run Creek near Marquette, IA 05389000: Flow=527cfs,Stage=6.36ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,Yellow River near Ion, IA 05386400: Stage=32.06ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383075: Flow=641cfs,Stage=3.97ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05382325: Flow=208cfs,Stage=3.98ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER AT SPARTA, WI 05382284: Flow=47cfs,Stage=5.99ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 21 NEAR ANGELO, WI 05382267: Flow=89cfs,Stage=6.54ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWY BB NR TOMAH,WI 05382257: Flow=1.9cfs,Stage=1.81ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT YARD ROAD NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382255: Flow=2.1cfs,Stage=2.41ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT SIXTEENTH COURT NEAR TOMAH, WI 05379400: Flow=779cfs,Stage=4.25ft,Floodstage=8ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT ARCADIA, WI 05378490: Stage=9.81ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LOCK AND DAM 5A NR WINONA, MN 05366800: Flow=13700cfs,Stage=8.03ft,2017-03-10 11:45,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA R AT GRAND AVE AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05365550: Flow=12000cfs,Stage=9.68ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER BELOW DELLS DAM AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05360500: Flow=4710cfs,Stage=8.87ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05357335: Stage=3.90ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BEAR RIVER NEAR MANITOWISH WATERS, WI 05357245: Flow=50cfs,Stage=1.39ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,TROUT RIVER AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357230: Flow=4.0cfs,Stage=8.01ft,2017-03-10 11:30,Not ranked,NORTH CREEK AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357225: Stage=8.07ft,2017-03-10 11:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,STEVENSON CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357215: Flow=16cfs,Stage=1.63ft,2017-03-10 11:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357206: Flow=5.3cfs,Stage=0.45ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK SITE NO. 3 NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05356500: Stage=4.51ft,2017-03-10 11:45:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05344490: Flow=6510cfs,Stage=28.92ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=118cfs,Stage=10.45ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341752: Flow=238cfs,Stage=4.24ft,2017-03-10 11:05,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ WILLOW R STATE PARK NR BURKHARDT,WI 05331833: Flow=196cfs,Stage=2.10ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,NAMEKAGON RIVER AT LEONARDS, WI 04087234: Flow=91cfs,Stage=4.83ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT 60TH ST NEAR CALEDONIA, WI 04087214: Flow=8.7cfs,Stage=10.88ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT GRANGE AVENUE AT GREENFIELD, WI 04087170: Flow=1720cfs,Stage=8.78ft,2017-03-10 09:00,Not ranked,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MOUTH AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087142: Flow=-54cfs,Stage=13.17ft,2017-03-10 12:10,Not ranked,MENOMONEE RIVER AT 16TH STREET AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087119: Flow=4.6cfs,Stage=10.14ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,HONEY CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087070: Flow=14cfs,Stage=4.40ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087050: Flow=6.8cfs,Stage=2.31ft,2017-03-10 12:10,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER NEAR FREISTADT, WI 04085108: Flow=53cfs,Stage=6.54ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,EAST RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY ZZ NR GREENLEAF,WI 04085082: Stage=579.62ft,2016-11-10 06:50,Not ranked,FOX RIVER DS FROM DUTCHMAN CREEK AT GREEN BAY, WI 04085062: Stage=581.02ft,2016-08-20 06:33,Not ranked,FOX RIVER S OF FOX POINT BOAT LAUNCH @ DE PERE, WI 04085061: Stage=580.57ft,2016-10-11 05:50,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT FORT HOWARD PAPER MILL AT DE PERE, WI 04084927: Flow=3.7cfs,Stage=3.67ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,WEST PLUM CREEK AT NEW ROAD NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084911: Flow=14cfs,Stage=2.70ft,2017-03-10 10:45,Not ranked,PLUM CREEK NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084445: Flow=10400cfs,Stage=6.39ft,Floodstage=8.4ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT APPLETON, WI 04084255: Stage=2.29ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, WI 04082500: Stage=2.35ft,Floodstage=3.5ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO AT OSHKOSH, WI 04082400: Flow=10000cfs,Stage=5.63ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OSHKOSH, WI 04080798: Flow=49cfs,Stage=8.95ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,TOMORROW RIVER NEAR NELSONVILLE, WI 04078500: Stage=4.30ft,2017-03-10 12:00:00,Floodstage=7ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,EMBARRASS RIVER NEAR EMBARRASS, WI 04077630: Stage=6.26ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Floodstage=11ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,RED RIVER AT MORGAN ROAD NEAR MORGAN, WI 04074950: Stage=10.12ft,2017-03-10 12:30:00,Floodstage=11.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,WOLF RIVER AT LANGLADE, WI 04073466: Flow=93cfs,Stage=6.61ft,2017-03-10 11:05,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT SPAULDING ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073458: Flow=5.0cfs,Stage=4.97ft,2017-03-10 09:05,Not ranked,ROY CREEK AT ROY CREEK ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073365: Flow=1870cfs,Stage=8.16ft,Floodstage=9.5ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT PRINCETON, WI 04072150: Flow=285cfs,Stage=12.94ft,Floodstage=18ft,2017-03-10 09:00,Not ranked,DUCK CREEK NEAR HOWARD, WI 04072076: Flow=3.8cfs,Stage=2.99ft,2017-03-10 11:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT FLORIST DRIVE AT ONEIDA, WI 04071765: Flow=1370cfs,Stage=6.00ft,Floodstage=9ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,OCONTO RIVER NEAR OCONTO, WI 04071000: Stage=2.72ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Floodstage=7.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,OCONTO RIVER NEAR GILLETT, WI 04069416: Flow=1620cfs,Stage=9.47ft,Floodstage=12ft,2017-03-10 12:00,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PORTERFIELD, WI 04067958: Flow=880cfs,Stage=5.24ft,Floodstage=9ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER NEAR WABENO, WI 04067500: Stage=11.93ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Floodstage=15ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR MC ALLISTER, WI 04066800: Stage=12.29ft,2017-03-10 11:00:00,Floodstage=17ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MENOMINEE RIVER AT KOSS, MI 04066030: Flow=3980cfs,2017-03-10 12:30,Floodstage=14ft,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT WHITE RAPIDS DAM NEAR BANAT, MI 04065106: Flow=3470cfs,Stage=7.81ft,Floodstage=13ft,2017-03-10 12:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT NIAGARA, WI 04062011: Flow=618cfs,Stage=7.10ft,Floodstage=12ft,2017-03-10 12:30,Not ranked,BRULE RIVER NEAR COMMONWEALTH, WI 04037400: Stage=3.97ft,2017-03-10 12:45,Not ranked,CISCO LAKE NEAR WATERSMEET, MI 04031000: Stage=3.68ft,2017-03-10 13:00:00,Floodstage=10ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BLACK RIVER NEAR BESSEMER, MI 04027000: Stage=4.63ft,2017-03-10 12:45:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BAD RIVER NEAR ODANAH, WI 04026561: Stage=5.12ft,2017-03-10 12:30:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT STRICKER ROAD NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026511: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,BAD RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 169 NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026450: Stage=2.58ft,2017-03-10 12:30:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BAD RIVER NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026390: Stage=7.28ft,2017-03-10 09:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BEARTRAP CREEK AT U.S. HIGHWAY 2 NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04024430: Stage=9.22ft,2017-03-10 12:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI Go to WaterWatch (offsite) 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