Mercury Research Team Staff :
    • David P. Krabbenhoft
      Team Leader and
      Project Chief
      (608) 821-3843
    • John F. DeWild
      Lab Operations and
      QA Officer
      (608) 821-3846
    • Jake Ogorek
      Biologist and Chemical Hygiene Officer
      (608) 821-3819
    • Mike Tate
      Physical Scientist
      Mobile Mercury Lab Operations
      (608) 821-3830
    • Ryan Lepak
      Student Trainee (Hydrology)/Lab Assistant
      (608) 821-3819


USGS Water Science Centers are located in each state.

There is a USGS Water Science Center office in each State. Washington Oregon California Idaho Nevada Montana Wyoming Utah Colorado Arizona New Mexico North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas Oklahoma Texas Minnesota Iowa Missouri Arkansas Louisiana Wisconsin Illinois Mississippi Michigan Indiana Ohio Kentucky Tennessee Alabama Pennsylvania West Virginia Georgia Florida Caribbean Alaska Hawaii New York Vermont New Hampshire Maine Massachusetts South Carolina North Carolina Rhode Island Virginia Connecticut New Jersey Maryland-Delaware-D.C.

Mercury Cycling in the Environment

Mercury cycling pathways in aquatic environments are very complex. The various forms of mercury can be converted from one to the next; most important is the conversion to methylmercury (CH3Hg+), the most toxic form. Ultimately, mercury ends up in the sediments, fish and wildlife, or evades back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

mercury cycleAquatic Mercury Cycle

At right, Figure 6 shows a schematic drawing of mercury cycling in an aquatic ecosystem.1 With the exception of isolated cases of known point sources, the ultimate source of mercury to most aquatic ecosystems is deposition from the atmosphere, primarily associated with rainfall.

As depicted in this figure, atmospheric deposition contains the three principal forms of mercury, although the majority is as inorganic mercury (Hg2+, ionic mercury). Once in surface water, mercury enters a complex cycle in which one form can be converted to another. It can be brought to the sediments by particle settling and then later released by diffusion or resuspension. It can enter the food chain, or it can be released back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH have a strong effect on the ultimate fate of mercury in an ecosystem. Studies have shown that for the same species of fish taken from the same region, increasing the acidity of the water (decreasing pH) and/or the DOC content generally results in higher body burdens in fish. Many scientists currently think that higher acidity and DOC levels enhance the mobility of mercury in the environment, thus making it more likely to enter the food chain.

Many of the details of the aquatic mercury cycle are still unknown, however, and remain areas of active research.

How does mercury enter the food chain?

The exact mechanism(s) by which mercury enters the food chain remain largely unknown, and probably vary among ecosystems. We do know, however, that certain bacteria play an important early role. Studies have shown that bacteria that process sulfate (SO4=) in the environment take up mercury in its inorganic form, and through metabolic processes convert it to methylmercury. The conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury is important for two reasons: (1) methylmercury is much more toxic than inorganic mercury, and (2) organisms require considerably longer to eliminate methylmercury. At this point, the methylmercury-containing bacteria may be consumed by the next higher level in the food chain, or the bacteria may release the methylmercury to the water where it can quickly adsorb to plankton, which are also consumed by the next level in the food chain.

Where does atmospheric mercury come from?

There are many sources of mercury to the environment, both natural and man related. Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean. The primary human-related sources include: coal combustion, chlorine alkali processing, waste incineration, and metal processing. Best estimates to date suggest that human activities have about doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere, and the atmospheric burden is increasing by about 1.5 percent per year.

Has there always been mercury contamination, or is this a recent problem?

This is a difficult question to answer, in part because of a lack of adequately preserved fish specimens of preindustrial age to compare against contemporary samples. However, several lines of evidence from recent studies on Wisconsin lakes suggest that increase pemissions to the atmosphere, and subsequent higher deposition rates to lakes, likely translate into higher mercury levels in fish. Although the total amount of mercury delivered to one of these lakes annually is very small it is strongly absorbed by organic material floating in the water such as plankton or bacteria. These microorganisms are consumed by organisms higher in the food chain, or after dying, settle to the bottom of the lake and are incorporated into bottom sediments. Studies of sediment cores show that younger sediments deposited since industrialization have mercury concentrations that are about 3-5 times that of historical sediments. Thus, the fact that these sediments are primarily composed of dead microorganisms that were once the bottom of the food chain would suggest that modern levels of mercury in the food chain are elevated over preindustrial times.

If human-related emissions could be eliminated or reduced, how long would it take for ecosystems to recover?

The only way to attempt to answer this question is to incorporate all the best information currently available on how mercury behaves in the environment into a computer model. Such a model was constructed as part of the research effort on northern Wisconsin lakes. Modeled scenarios predict that if emissions could be reduced by 5 percent, it would take 8 years before any change in fish concentrations would be observed, and the decrease would be small.

FS 216-95

Read a more complete explanation of the mercury cycle:

USFS Fact Sheet FS 216-95, Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems, by Dave Krabbenhoft and David Rickert (1995).





1) Figure 6 reprinted with permission from Mercury Pollution: Integration and Synthesis. Copyright Lewis Publishers, an imprint of CRC Press.


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04087159: Flow=4.33cfs,Stage=6.14ft,Floodstage=16ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Low,KINNICKINNIC RIVER @ S. 11TH STREET @ MILWAUKEE,WI 04062000: Flow=328cfs,Stage=3.53ft,2018-03-17 10:45,>90,PAINT RIVER NEAR ALPHA, MI 04060993: Flow=1080cfs,Stage=5.28ft,Floodstage=9ft,2018-03-17 10:30,>90,BRULE RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 2 NEAR FLORENCE, WI 05527800: Flow=27.8cfs,Stage=2.74ft,Floodstage=7ft,2018-03-17 10:30,<10,DES PLAINES RIVER AT RUSSELL, IL 05425912: Flow=30.3cfs,Stage=839.19ft,Floodstage=843.5ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,BEAVERDAM RIVER AT BEAVER DAM, WI 04087240: Flow=60.5cfs,Stage=2.70ft,Floodstage=7ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,ROOT RIVER AT RACINE, WI 04087220: Flow=14.2cfs,Stage=2.07ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,ROOT RIVER NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087204: Flow=5.92cfs,Stage=2.39ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,OAK CREEK AT SOUTH MILWAUKEE, WI 04087120: Flow=40.0cfs,Stage=1.81ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 10:45,<10,MENOMONEE RIVER AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087088: Flow=5.38cfs,Stage=8.12ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,UNDERWOOD CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087030: Flow=15.9cfs,Stage=3.20ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2018-03-17 10:45,<10,MENOMONEE RIVER AT MENOMONEE FALLS, WI 04087257: Flow=10.5cfs,Stage=1.53ft,2018-03-17 11:00,<10,PIKE RIVER NEAR RACINE, WI 05429500: Flow=353cfs,Stage=4.64ft,2018-03-17 11:00,76-90,YAHARA RIVER AT MC FARLAND, WI 04063000: Flow=2150cfs,Stage=4.46ft,2018-03-17 11:00,76-90,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR FLORENCE, WI 05543830: Flow=89.8cfs,Stage=3.13ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,FOX RIVER AT WAUKESHA, WI 05407000: Flow=7250cfs,Stage=2.09ft,Floodstage=9ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MUSCODA, WI 05404000: Flow=4730cfs,Stage=3.33ft,Floodstage=16ft,2018-03-17 11:15,10-24,WISCONSIN RIVER NEAR WISCONSIN DELLS, WI 05365500: Flow=2220cfs,Stage=3.51ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT CHIPPEWA FALLS, WI 04087233: Flow=27.1cfs,Stage=2.58ft,Floodstage=9ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,ROOT RIVER CANAL NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04086600: Flow=371cfs,Stage=6.00ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,MILWAUKEE RIVER NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086500: Flow=60.8cfs,Stage=5.60ft,Floodstage=10ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,CEDAR CREEK NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086000: Flow=180cfs,Stage=2.47ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:00,10-24,SHEBOYGAN RIVER AT SHEBOYGAN, WI 05548280: Flow=141cfs,Stage=4.26ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,NIPPERSINK CREEK NEAR SPRING GROVE, IL 05544200: Flow=62.9cfs,Stage=2.52ft,Floodstage=5ft,2018-03-17 11:30,25-75,MUKWONAGO RIVER AT MUKWONAGO, WI 05437500: Flow=7260cfs,Stage=5.37ft,Floodstage=10ft,2018-03-17 10:30,25-75,ROCK RIVER AT ROCKTON, IL 05437050: Flow=2130cfs,Stage=6.67ft,Floodstage=12ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER NR SHIRLAND, ILL 05436500: Flow=445cfs,Stage=1.50ft,Floodstage=5ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,SUGAR RIVER NEAR BRODHEAD, WI 05434500: Flow=637cfs,Stage=5.86ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2018-03-17 09:00,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT MARTINTOWN, WI 05433000: Flow=179cfs,Stage=4.87ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,EAST BRANCH PECATONICA RIVER NR BLANCHARDVILLE, WI 05432500: Flow=141cfs,Stage=2.48ft,Floodstage=13.5ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT DARLINGTON, WI 05431486: Flow=107cfs,Stage=3.80ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,TURTLE CREEK AT CARVERS ROCK ROAD NEAR CLINTON, WI 05430500: Flow=4810cfs,Stage=7.50ft,Floodstage=9ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,ROCK RIVER AT AFTON, WI 05430175: Flow=597cfs,Stage=4.85ft,Floodstage=10ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,YAHARA RIVER NEAR FULTON, WI 05430150: Flow=153cfs,Stage=5.18ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,BADFISH CREEK NEAR COOKSVILLE, WI 05427965: Flow=0.20cfs,Stage=0.43ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,SPRING HARBOR STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 05427948: Flow=3.30cfs,Stage=3.46ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,PHEASANT BRANCH AT MIDDLETON, WI 05427718: Flow=33.1cfs,Stage=1.85ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:05,25-75,YAHARA RIVER AT WINDSOR, WI 05426250: Flow=114cfs,Stage=2.30ft,Floodstage=4ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,BARK RIVER NEAR ROME, WI 05426000: Flow=723cfs,Stage=3.27ft,Floodstage=7ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,CRAWFISH RIVER AT MILFORD, WI 05425500: Flow=1360cfs,Stage=3.28ft,Floodstage=5.5ft,2018-03-17 10:45,25-75,ROCK RIVER AT WATERTOWN, WI 05423500: Flow=20.9cfs,Stage=2.28ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,SOUTH BRANCH ROCK RIVER AT WAUPUN, WI 05414820: Flow=21.3cfs,Stage=4.57ft,2018-03-17 10:15,25-75,SINSINAWA RIVER NEAR MENOMINEE, IL 05410490: Flow=728cfs,Stage=7.83ft,Floodstage=12ft,2018-03-17 11:45,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STEUBEN, WI 05408000: Flow=240cfs,Stage=3.47ft,Floodstage=12ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT LA FARGE, WI 05406500: Flow=45.1cfs,Stage=2.15ft,Floodstage=7ft,2018-03-17 10:45,25-75,BLACK EARTH CREEK AT BLACK EARTH, WI 05405000: Flow=504cfs,Stage=8.83ft,Floodstage=16ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,BARABOO RIVER NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403500: Flow=278cfs,Stage=3.91ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,LEMONWEIR RIVER AT NEW LISBON, WI 05402000: Flow=66.5cfs,2018-03-17 10:15,Stage=2.48ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=12ft,25-75,YELLOW RIVER AT BABCOCK, WI 05401050: Flow=51.4cfs,Stage=4.78ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,TENMILE CREEK NEAR NEKOOSA, WI 05400760: Flow=3330cfs,Stage=2.81ft,Floodstage=12ft,2018-03-17 11:30,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT WISCONSIN RAPIDS, WI 05398000: Flow=2280cfs,Stage=13.67ft,Floodstage=25ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT ROTHSCHILD, WI 05395000: Flow=2140cfs,Stage=5.24ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 11:30,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MERRILL, WI 05391000: Flow=650cfs,Stage=2.10ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER @ RAINBOW LAKE NR LAKE TOMAHAWK,WI 05379500: Flow=751cfs,Stage=6.44ft,Floodstage=9ft,2018-03-17 11:45,25-75,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT DODGE, WI 05378500: Flow=22300cfs,2018-03-17 11:15,Stage=5.65ft,2018-03-17 11:45:00,Floodstage=13ft,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MN 05370000: Flow=22.5cfs,Stage=12.25ft,2018-03-17 11:45,25-75,EAU GALLE RIVER AT SPRING VALLEY, WI 05369000: Flow=1400cfs,Stage=7.02ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,RED CEDAR RIVER AT MENOMONIE, WI 05356000: Flow=311cfs,Stage=4.43ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT BISHOPS BRIDGE NEAR WINTER, WI 05344500: Flow=15500cfs,Stage=25.25ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05340500: Flow=3050cfs,Stage=3.37ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 04087000: Flow=394cfs,Stage=2.31ft,Floodstage=7ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04081000: Flow=252cfs,Stage=1.62ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 10:45,25-75,WAUPACA RIVER NEAR WAUPACA, WI 04060500: Flow=59.2cfs,Stage=4.55ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 10:30,25-75,IRON RIVER AT CASPIAN, MI 04037500: Flow=41.4cfs,Stage=4.77ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,CISCO BRANCH ONTONAGON R AT CISCO LAKE OUTLET, MI 04027500: Flow=192cfs,Stage=1.56ft,2018-03-17 11:15,25-75,WHITE RIVER NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04025500: Flow=138cfs,Stage=1.57ft,2018-03-17 11:00,25-75,BOIS BRULE RIVER AT BRULE, WI 464646092052900: Not ranked,Equipment malfunction,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 463741090521301: Stage=1.41ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,ASHLAND BREAKWATER LIGHTHOUSE CHEQUAMEGON BAY, WI 455430089550001: Stage=11.14ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,HASKELL LAKE AT LAC DU FLAMBEAU, WI 445322088281801: Stage=93.73ft,2018-03-17 12:00,Not ranked,BERRY LAKE NEAR SHAWANO, WI 445014088183601: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.29ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS TILE NEAR PULCIFER, WI 444037087265601: Flow=0.00388cfs,Stage=0.06ft,2018-03-17 11:05,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS TILE NEAR ALGOMA, WI 442119088085501: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.03ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 4 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 442114088085701: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=0.03ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 5 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 441748088133704: 2018-03-17 11:55,Not ranked,TRT WETLAND ONE OUTLET NR KAUKAUNA, WI 441748088133703: Stage=0.21ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,TRT WETLAND ONE SED BASIN OUTLET NR KAUKAUNA, WI 441748088133702: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.03ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,TRT WETLAND ONE DRAIN TILE INLET NR KAUKAUNA, WI 441748088133701: Flow=0.00610cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,TRT WETLAND ONE SURFACE INLET NR KAUKAUNA, WI 441624088045601: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.02ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441546088082001: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.04ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 2 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045002: Flow=0.00055cfs,Stage=0.02ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER TILE 1 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045001: Flow=0.02188cfs,Stage=0.13ft,2018-03-17 11:04,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY 3 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 435950087572701: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.83ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS TILE NEAR SAINT NAZIANZ, WI 430649089181232: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.02ft,2018-03-08 04:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181231: Flow=0.38cfs,Stage=0.73ft,2018-03-07 18:17,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181222: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.00ft,2018-03-08 04:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181221: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.00ft,2018-03-08 04:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181212: Flow=0.07cfs,Stage=0.36ft,2018-03-08 04:01,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181211: Flow=0.15cfs,Stage=0.48ft,2018-03-08 10:01,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 DRAIN TILE AT MADISON,WI 430649089181200: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.05ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT INFLUENT AT MADISON, WI 430532089315602: 2018-01-17 13:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-OUTLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430532089315601: 2018-01-17 13:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-INLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430358089281901: Stage=0.01ft,2017-11-18 17:45,Not ranked,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE (EAST) STORM SEWR @ MADISON,WI 430356089183502: Stage=-1.46ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES MIDDLE MADISON, WI 425715089164700: Stage=3.13ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE KEGONSA AT BARBER DRIVE NEAR STOUGHTON, WI 424848088083100: Flow=0.00cfs,1989-09-30 23:45,Stage=8.19ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Not ranked,WIND LAKE AT OUTLET AT WIND LAKE, WI 424008089050201: Flow=0.00134cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 5 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423954089071501: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423740088592701: Flow=0.00340cfs,Stage=0.01ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWY AR1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423645088595501: Flow=0.00000cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWY AR2 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423525088260400: Stage=2.63ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,GENEVA LAKE AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 055451345: Flow=37.1cfs,Stage=8.40ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER AT CENTER STREET AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 054279465: Flow=0.02cfs,Stage=2.57ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,S FORK PHEASANT BRANCH @ DEMING WAY @ MIDDLETON,WI 053813595: Flow=880cfs,Stage=36.93ft,Floodstage=47ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER DS ST HWY 54 AT BLACK RIVER FALLS, WI 053674967: Flow=11.8cfs,Stage=4.02ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,TROUT CREEK AT TENTH STREET NEAR BLOOMER, WI 040871488: Flow=2.83cfs,Stage=10.97ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CK @ ST. LUKES HOSPITAL @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.10ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,HOLMES AVE CRK TRIB @ GMIA OUTFALL #1 AT MILWAUKEE 040871475: Flow=0.65cfs,Stage=10.85ft,2018-03-17 11:20,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK @ GMIA OUTFALL #7 @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871473: Flow=0.21cfs,Stage=10.66ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK AT GMIA INFALL AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040869416: Flow=1.98cfs,Stage=3.55ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LINCOLN CREEK @ SHERMAN BOULEVARD AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040857005: Flow=4.69cfs,Stage=4.42ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,OTTER CREEK AT WILLOW ROAD NEAR PLYMOUTH, WI 040854592: Stage=4.07ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,FISHER CREEK AT HOWARDS GROVE, WI 040851385: Flow=5560cfs,Stage=580.02ft,Floodstage=584ft,2018-03-17 11:20,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OIL TANK DEPOT AT GREEN BAY, WI 040734605: Not ranked,Equipment malfunction,GREEN LAKE SW INLET @ CT HIGHWY K NR GREEN LAKE,WI 040263205: Flow=17.7cfs,Stage=1.32ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,WHITTLESEY CREEK NEAR ASHLAND, WI 05548000: Stage=3.06ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,NIPPERSINK LAKE AT FOX LAKE, IL 05547500: Stage=3.07ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,FOX LAKE NEAR LAKE VILLA, IL 05547000: Stage=3.09ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,CHANNEL LAKE NEAR ANTIOCH, IL 05545750: Flow=634cfs,Stage=6.88ft,Floodstage=11ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER NEAR NEW MUNSTER, WI 05544475: Stage=4.37ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT ROCHESTER, WI 05544385: Flow=14.0cfs,2006-09-30 23:45,Stage=11.86ft,2018-03-17 11:45:00,Not ranked,MUSKEGO (BIG MUSKEGO) LAKE OUTLET NR WIND LAKE, WI 05544348: Stage=1.57ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT WATERFORD DAM, AT WATERFORD, WI 05527950: Flow=33.8cfs,Stage=6.90ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,MILL CREEK AT OLD MILL CREEK, IL 05527910: Flow=17.6cfs,Stage=17.16ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK NEAR MILBURN, IL 05527905: Flow=5.82cfs,Stage=11.00ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,HASTINGS CREEK NEAR LINDENHURST, IL 05527900: Flow=7.37cfs,Stage=7.08ft,2018-03-17 10:30,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK AT HICKORY CORNERS, IL 05438283: Flow=2.32cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,PISCASAW CREEK NEAR WALWORTH, WI 05435950: Flow=57.7cfs,Stage=3.14ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,SUGAR RIVER NEAR VERONA, WI 05435943: Flow=10.8cfs,Stage=4.41ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BADGER MILL CREEK AT VERONA, WI 05432055: Flow=7.90cfs,1991-09-30 23:45,Not ranked,LIVINGSTON BR PECATONICA RIVER NEAR LIVINGSTON, WI 05431017: Flow=14.0cfs,2009-09-30 23:55,Not ranked,DELAVAN LAKE INLET AT STATE HWY 50 AT LAKE LAWN,WI 05431016: Flow=9.43cfs,Stage=8.55ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,JACKSON CREEK AT MOUND ROAD NEAR ELKHORN, WI 05429700: Flow=430cfs,Stage=6.53ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER @ FORTON STREET BRIDGE @ STOUGHTON,WI 05429485: Stage=4.67ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE WAUBESA AT MC FARLAND, WI 05429000: Stage=5.01ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE MONONA AT MADISON, WI 05428668: Flow=18.0cfs,2010-09-30 23:55,Not ranked,STARKWEATHER CREEK ABOVE ATWOOD AVE AT MADISON, WI 05428500: Flow=255cfs,Stage=5.36ft,2018-03-17 10:55,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT EAST MAIN STREET AT MADISON, WI 05428000: Stage=10.01ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON, WI 05427943: Flow=3.11cfs,Stage=3.52ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,PHEASANT BRANCH AT AIRPORT ROAD NEAR MIDDLETON, WI 05427930: Flow=7.83cfs,Stage=10.40ft,2018-03-17 11:10,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK AT CT HIGHWAY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427927: Flow=3.62cfs,Stage=1.74ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK @ CT HIGHWAY Q NR WAUNAKEE, WI 05427910: Flow=19.1cfs,Stage=10.10ft,2018-03-17 11:10,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK @ COUNTY TRNK HGHWY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427880: Flow=6.14cfs,Stage=2.40ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 19 NEAR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427850: Flow=113cfs,Stage=10.13ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 113 AT MADISON, WI 05427530: Flow=3930cfs,Stage=4.54ft,Floodstage=6.5ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT NEWVILLE, WI 05427235: Stage=8.29ft,Floodstage=10ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,LAKE KOSHKONONG NEAR NEWVILLE, WI 05427085: Not ranked,Ice affected,ROCK RIVER AT ROBERT STREET AT FORT ATKINSON, WI 05426380: Flow=2.55cfs,Stage=0.74ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,PARADISE SPRINGS CREEK NEAR EAGLE, WI 05426350: Flow=3.95cfs,Stage=0.43ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,SCUPPERNONG RIVER UPSTREAM OF MARL PIT NR EAGLE,WI 05426067: Flow=28.3cfs,Stage=12.60ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT NAGAWICKA ROAD AT DELAFIELD, WI 05424057: Flow=754cfs,Stage=7.11ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT HORICON, WI 05414000: Stage=3.62ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PLATTE RIVER NEAR ROCKVILLE, WI 05413500: Stage=5.60ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=18ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,GRANT RIVER AT BURTON, WI 05411500: Stage=14.24ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,Mississippi River at Clayton, IA 05407470: Flow=76.9cfs,Stage=8.62ft,Floodstage=16ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 33 AT ONTARIO, WI 05406479: Flow=22.1cfs,Stage=2.94ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CK NR TREATMENT PLNT @ CROSS PLAINS,WI 05406469: Flow=4.22cfs,Stage=2.37ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BREWERY CREEK-UPSTREAM SITE-AT CROSS PLAINS, WI 05406457: Flow=18.4cfs,Stage=2.12ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CREEK NR BREWERY RD AT CROSS PLAINS,WI 05404500: Stage=7.27ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,DEVILS LAKE NEAR BARABOO, WI 05404129: Stage=4.59ft,Floodstage=15ft,2018-03-17 10:15,Not ranked,BARABOO RIVER AT LA VALLE, WI 05403000: Flow=163cfs,Stage=9.81ft,Floodstage=15ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT NECEDAH, WI 05401514: Stage=4.66ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BIG ROCHE A CRI CREEK AT HWY G NR LEOLA, WI 05401063: Stage=92.38ft,2018-03-17 12:00,Not ranked,LAKE HURON NEAR PLAINFIELD, WI 05401034: Stage=3.15ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,S.BR.TENMILE CREEK NEAR BANCROFT, WI 05400625: Flow=4.32cfs,Stage=3.15ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LITTLE PLOVER RIVER NEAR PLOVER, WI 05399500: Stage=3.60ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=15.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BIG EAU PLEINE RIVER AT STRATFORD, WI 05397500: Stage=1.97ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,EAU CLAIRE RIVER AT KELLY, WI 05396000: Stage=2.65ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=10ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BIG RIB RIVER AT RIB FALLS, WI 05394500: Stage=2.19ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=7ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PRAIRIE RIVER NEAR MERRILL, WI 05393500: Stage=2.07ft,2018-03-17 11:30:00,Floodstage=8ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,SPIRIT RIVER AT SPIRIT FALLS, WI 05392187: Flow=3.35cfs,Stage=10.59ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,Tower Creek at Lac du Flambeau, WI 05390500: Stage=92.77ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,ANVIL LAKE NEAR EAGLE RIVER, WI 05389500: Flow=24000cfs,2013-10-29 23:45,Stage=8.11ft,2018-03-17 11:45:00,Floodstage=16ft,Not ranked,Mississippi River at McGregor, IA 05389400: Flow=4.79cfs,Stage=3.86ft,2018-03-17 12:00,Not ranked,Bloody Run Creek near Marquette, IA 05389000: Flow=131cfs,Stage=5.32ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,Yellow River near Ion, IA 05386400: Stage=30.86ft,2018-03-17 11:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383075: Flow=457cfs,Stage=2.99ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05382325: Flow=202cfs,Stage=3.57ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER AT SPARTA, WI 05382284: Flow=32.7cfs,Stage=5.63ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 21 NEAR ANGELO, WI 05382267: Flow=73.6cfs,Stage=6.20ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWY BB NR TOMAH,WI 05382257: Flow=1.47cfs,Stage=1.80ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT YARD ROAD NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382255: Flow=1.57cfs,Stage=2.33ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT SIXTEENTH COURT NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382000: Floodstage=12ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BLACK RIVER NEAR GALESVILLE, WI 05381000: Stage=4.78ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=18ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BLACK RIVER AT NEILLSVILLE, WI 05379400: Flow=711cfs,Stage=3.92ft,Floodstage=8ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT ARCADIA, WI 05378490: Stage=5.94ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LOCK AND DAM 5A NR WINONA, MN 05369500: Stage=3.78ft,2018-03-17 11:45:00,Floodstage=13ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT DURAND, WI 05368000: Stage=3.99ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,HAY RIVER AT WHEELER, WI 05367500: Stage=2.76ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,RED CEDAR RIVER NEAR COLFAX, WI 05366800: Flow=2530cfs,Stage=4.15ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA R AT GRAND AVE AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05365550: Flow=2340cfs,Stage=5.33ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER BELOW DELLS DAM AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05362000: Stage=4.73ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,JUMP RIVER AT SHELDON, WI 05360500: Stage=6.16ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05359500: Stage=6.02ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,SOUTH FORK FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR PHILLIPS, WI 05357335: Stage=4.71ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BEAR RIVER NEAR MANITOWISH WATERS, WI 05356500: Stage=3.83ft,2018-03-17 10:45:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05344490: Flow=3700cfs,Stage=25.22ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=107cfs,Stage=10.29ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341752: Flow=148cfs,Stage=3.82ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ WILLOW R STATE PARK NR BURKHARDT,WI 05333500: Stage=3.41ft,2018-03-17 11:30:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,ST. CROIX RIVER NEAR DANBURY, WI 05331833: Flow=108cfs,Stage=1.77ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,NAMEKAGON RIVER AT LEONARDS, WI 04087234: Flow=44.4cfs,Stage=3.88ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT 60TH ST NEAR CALEDONIA, WI 04087214: Flow=2.44cfs,Stage=10.62ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT GRANGE AVENUE AT GREENFIELD, WI 04087170: Flow=-2780cfs,Stage=9.57ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MOUTH AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087142: Flow=-233cfs,Stage=14.07ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,MENOMONEE RIVER AT 16TH STREET AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087119: Flow=1.24cfs,Stage=9.85ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,HONEY CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087070: Flow=5.52cfs,Stage=4.05ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087050: Flow=1.11cfs,Stage=2.09ft,2018-03-16 06:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER NEAR FREISTADT, WI 04085427: Stage=5.51ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=10ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MANITOWOC RIVER AT MANITOWOC, WI 04085200: Stage=9.02ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=14ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,KEWAUNEE RIVER NEAR KEWAUNEE, WI 04085108: Not ranked,Ice affected,EAST RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY ZZ NR GREENLEAF,WI 04084927: Not ranked,Ice affected,WEST PLUM CREEK AT NEW ROAD NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084911: Not ranked,Equipment malfunction,PLUM CREEK NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084445: Stage=5.67ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=8.4ft,Not ranked,Equipment malfunction,FOX RIVER AT APPLETON, WI 04084255: Stage=1.83ft,Floodstage=6ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, WI 04082500: Stage=1.96ft,Floodstage=3.5ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO AT OSHKOSH, WI 04082400: Flow=4880cfs,Stage=5.26ft,Floodstage=7.5ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OSHKOSH, WI 04080798: Flow=24.2cfs,Stage=8.54ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,TOMORROW RIVER NEAR NELSONVILLE, WI 04080000: Stage=1.54ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,LITTLE WOLF RIVER AT ROYALTON, WI 04079000: Stage=4.73ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,WOLF RIVER AT NEW LONDON, WI 04078500: Stage=3.06ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=7ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,EMBARRASS RIVER NEAR EMBARRASS, WI 04077630: Stage=5.89ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=11ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,RED RIVER AT MORGAN ROAD NEAR MORGAN, WI 04074950: Stage=8.81ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=11.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,WOLF RIVER AT LANGLADE, WI 04073500: Stage=10.02ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=13ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,FOX RIVER AT BERLIN, WI 04073466: Flow=12.2cfs,Stage=6.41ft,2018-03-17 11:01,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT SPAULDING ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073462: Flow=0.03cfs,Stage=4.25ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,WHITE CREEK AT SPRING GROVE ROAD NR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073458: Flow=0.42cfs,Stage=4.51ft,2017-10-10 15:45,Not ranked,ROY CREEK AT ROY CREEK ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073365: Flow=1010cfs,Stage=5.65ft,Floodstage=9.5ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT PRINCETON, WI 04073240: Stage=3.58ft,2018-03-17 12:00,Not ranked,CHAFFEE CREEK AT I-39 NEAR COLOMA, WI 04072150: Stage=12.19ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=18ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,DUCK CREEK NEAR HOWARD, WI 04072076: Not ranked,Ice affected,SILVER CREEK AT FLORIST DRIVE AT ONEIDA, WI 04071765: Stage=4.90ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,OCONTO RIVER NEAR OCONTO, WI 04071000: Stage=3.34ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=7.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,OCONTO RIVER NEAR GILLETT, WI 04069500: Stage=2.08ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=10ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PESHTIGO, WI 04069416: Stage=9.38ft,2018-03-17 11:05:00,Floodstage=12ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PORTERFIELD, WI 04067958: Stage=5.53ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=9ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PESHTIGO RIVER NEAR WABENO, WI 04067500: Stage=10.43ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=15ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR MC ALLISTER, WI 04066800: Stage=11.32ft,2018-03-17 11:30:00,Floodstage=17ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MENOMINEE RIVER AT KOSS, MI 04066500: Stage=3.31ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=6.5ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PIKE RIVER AT AMBERG, WI 04066030: Flow=2390cfs,Stage=7.35ft,Floodstage=14ft,2018-03-17 11:30,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT WHITE RAPIDS DAM NEAR BANAT, MI 04066003: Stage=10.80ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=15ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,MENOMINEE RIVER BELOW PEMENE CREEK NEAR PEMBINE,WI 04065106: Flow=2210cfs,Stage=6.60ft,Floodstage=13ft,2018-03-17 11:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT NIAGARA, WI 04064500: Stage=3.91ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=7ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,PINE RIVER BELOW PINE R POWERPLANT NR FLORENCE, WI 04063700: Stage=2.29ft,2018-03-17 11:15:00,Floodstage=6ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,POPPLE RIVER NEAR FENCE, WI 04063500: Flow=565cfs,2009-09-30 23:45,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT TWIN FALLS NEAR IRON MT, MI 04062011: Flow=528cfs,Stage=7.07ft,Floodstage=12ft,2018-03-17 10:30,Not ranked,BRULE RIVER NEAR COMMONWEALTH, WI 04037400: Stage=4.00ft,2018-03-17 10:45,Not ranked,CISCO LAKE NEAR WATERSMEET, MI 04031000: Stage=2.18ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Floodstage=10ft,Not ranked,Ice affected,BLACK RIVER NEAR BESSEMER, MI 04027595: Stage=2.34ft,2018-03-17 11:00,Not ranked,BAD RIVER AT ODANAH, WI 04027000: Stage=3.37ft,2018-03-17 11:45:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BAD RIVER NEAR ODANAH, WI 04026561: Stage=3.67ft,2018-03-17 11:30:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT STRICKER ROAD NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026450: Stage=1.38ft,2018-03-17 11:30:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,BAD RIVER NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026390: Stage=4.56ft,2018-03-17 11:00:00,Not ranked,BEARTRAP CREEK AT U.S. HIGHWAY 2 NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04024430: Stage=6.37ft,2018-03-17 10:00:00,Not ranked,Ice affected,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI Go to WaterWatch (offsite) for a larger map with additional options