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Mercury Studies

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Mercury Cycling in the Environment

Mercury cycling pathways in aquatic environments are very complex. The various forms of mercury can be converted from one to the next; most important is the conversion to methylmercury (CH3Hg+), the most toxic form. Ultimately, mercury ends up in the sediments, fish and wildlife, or evades back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

mercury cycleAquatic Mercury Cycle

At right, Figure 6 shows a schematic drawing of mercury cycling in an aquatic ecosystem.1 With the exception of isolated cases of known point sources, the ultimate source of mercury to most aquatic ecosystems is deposition from the atmosphere, primarily associated with rainfall.

As depicted in this figure, atmospheric deposition contains the three principal forms of mercury, although the majority is as inorganic mercury (Hg2+, ionic mercury). Once in surface water, mercury enters a complex cycle in which one form can be converted to another. It can be brought to the sediments by particle settling and then later released by diffusion or resuspension. It can enter the food chain, or it can be released back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH have a strong effect on the ultimate fate of mercury in an ecosystem. Studies have shown that for the same species of fish taken from the same region, increasing the acidity of the water (decreasing pH) and/or the DOC content generally results in higher body burdens in fish. Many scientists currently think that higher acidity and DOC levels enhance the mobility of mercury in the environment, thus making it more likely to enter the food chain.

Many of the details of the aquatic mercury cycle are still unknown, however, and remain areas of active research.

How does mercury enter the food chain?

The exact mechanism(s) by which mercury enters the food chain remain largely unknown, and probably vary among ecosystems. We do know, however, that certain bacteria play an important early role. Studies have shown that bacteria that process sulfate (SO4=) in the environment take up mercury in its inorganic form, and through metabolic processes convert it to methylmercury. The conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury is important for two reasons: (1) methylmercury is much more toxic than inorganic mercury, and (2) organisms require considerably longer to eliminate methylmercury. At this point, the methylmercury-containing bacteria may be consumed by the next higher level in the food chain, or the bacteria may release the methylmercury to the water where it can quickly adsorb to plankton, which are also consumed by the next level in the food chain.

Where does atmospheric mercury come from?

There are many sources of mercury to the environment, both natural and man related. Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean. The primary human-related sources include: coal combustion, chlorine alkali processing, waste incineration, and metal processing. Best estimates to date suggest that human activities have about doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere, and the atmospheric burden is increasing by about 1.5 percent per year.

Has there always been mercury contamination, or is this a recent problem?

This is a difficult question to answer, in part because of a lack of adequately preserved fish specimens of preindustrial age to compare against contemporary samples. However, several lines of evidence from recent studies on Wisconsin lakes suggest that increase pemissions to the atmosphere, and subsequent higher deposition rates to lakes, likely translate into higher mercury levels in fish. Although the total amount of mercury delivered to one of these lakes annually is very small it is strongly absorbed by organic material floating in the water such as plankton or bacteria. These microorganisms are consumed by organisms higher in the food chain, or after dying, settle to the bottom of the lake and are incorporated into bottom sediments. Studies of sediment cores show that younger sediments deposited since industrialization have mercury concentrations that are about 3-5 times that of historical sediments. Thus, the fact that these sediments are primarily composed of dead microorganisms that were once the bottom of the food chain would suggest that modern levels of mercury in the food chain are elevated over preindustrial times.

If human-related emissions could be eliminated or reduced, how long would it take for ecosystems to recover?

The only way to attempt to answer this question is to incorporate all the best information currently available on how mercury behaves in the environment into a computer model. Such a model was constructed as part of the research effort on northern Wisconsin lakes. Modeled scenarios predict that if emissions could be reduced by 5 percent, it would take 8 years before any change in fish concentrations would be observed, and the decrease would be small.

FS 216-95

Read a more complete explanation of the mercury cycle:

USFS Fact Sheet FS 216-95, Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems, by Dave Krabbenhoft and David Rickert (1995).

 

 

 

References

1) Figure 6 reprinted with permission from Mercury Pollution: Integration and Synthesis. Copyright Lewis Publishers, an imprint of CRC Press.

 

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05396000: Flow=386cfs,Stage=3.46ft,2014-08-27 09:15,High,BIG RIB RIVER AT RIB FALLS, WI 05548280: Flow=202cfs,Stage=4.71ft,2014-08-27 09:00,>90,NIPPERSINK CREEK NEAR SPRING GROVE, IL 05436500: Flow=763cfs,Stage=2.49ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,SUGAR RIVER NEAR BRODHEAD, WI 05430500: Flow=2060cfs,Stage=4.86ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,ROCK RIVER AT AFTON, WI 05430175: Flow=532cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,YAHARA RIVER NEAR FULTON, WI 05427948: Flow=7.6cfs,Stage=3.71ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,PHEASANT BRANCH AT MIDDLETON, WI 05425500: Flow=432cfs,Stage=2.04ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,ROCK RIVER AT WATERTOWN, WI 05406500: Flow=56cfs,Stage=2.00ft,2014-08-27 07:45,>90,BLACK EARTH CREEK AT BLACK EARTH, WI 05404000: Flow=8880cfs,Stage=5.38ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,WISCONSIN RIVER NEAR WISCONSIN DELLS, WI 05402000: Flow=155cfs,Stage=3.16ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,YELLOW RIVER AT BABCOCK, WI 05401050: Flow=76cfs,Stage=5.06ft,2014-08-27 08:00,>90,TENMILE CREEK NEAR NEKOOSA, WI 05398000: Flow=3800cfs,Stage=14.67ft,2014-08-27 09:00,>90,WISCONSIN RIVER AT ROTHSCHILD, WI 05394500: Flow=200cfs,Stage=2.70ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,PRAIRIE RIVER NEAR MERRILL, WI 05381000: Flow=605cfs,Stage=4.46ft,2014-08-27 07:15,>90,BLACK RIVER AT NEILLSVILLE, WI 05370000: Flow=30cfs,Stage=12.47ft,2014-08-27 09:45,>90,EAU GALLE RIVER AT SPRING VALLEY, WI 05369000: Flow=2290cfs,Stage=7.93ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,RED CEDAR RIVER AT MENOMONIE, WI 05367500: Flow=1590cfs,Stage=4.07ft,2014-08-27 08:00,>90,RED CEDAR RIVER NEAR COLFAX, WI 05362000: Flow=427cfs,Stage=4.20ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,JUMP RIVER AT SHELDON, WI 04087257: Flow=41cfs,Stage=2.05ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,PIKE RIVER NEAR RACINE, WI 04087000: Flow=514cfs,Stage=2.50ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04086600: Flow=505cfs,Stage=6.18ft,2014-08-27 09:00,>90,MILWAUKEE RIVER NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086500: Flow=64cfs,Stage=5.56ft,2014-08-27 09:00,>90,CEDAR CREEK NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086000: Flow=359cfs,Stage=2.73ft,2014-08-27 09:15,>90,SHEBOYGAN RIVER AT SHEBOYGAN, WI 04085427: Flow=198cfs,Stage=4.94ft,2014-08-27 08:45,>90,MANITOWOC RIVER AT MANITOWOC, WI 04081000: Flow=287cfs,Stage=2.02ft,2014-08-27 08:00,>90,WAUPACA RIVER NEAR WAUPACA, WI 04080000: Flow=412cfs,Stage=1.66ft,2014-08-27 09:00,>90,LITTLE WOLF RIVER AT ROYALTON, WI 04062000: Flow=292cfs,Stage=3.44ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,PAINT RIVER NEAR ALPHA, MI 04027500: Flow=331cfs,Stage=1.69ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,WHITE RIVER NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04025500: Flow=216cfs,Stage=2.02ft,2014-08-27 09:30,>90,BOIS BRULE RIVER AT BRULE, WI 05543830: Flow=115cfs,Stage=3.20ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,FOX RIVER AT WAUKESHA, WI 05437500: Flow=4450cfs,Stage=4.59ft,2014-08-27 08:30,76-90,ROCK RIVER AT ROCKTON, IL 05437050: Flow=1820cfs,Stage=6.25ft,2014-08-27 09:00,76-90,PECATONICA RIVER NR SHIRLAND, ILL 05434500: Flow=964cfs,Stage=6.71ft,2014-08-27 09:45,76-90,PECATONICA RIVER AT MARTINTOWN, WI 05433000: Flow=159cfs,Stage=4.68ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,EAST BRANCH PECATONICA RIVER NR BLANCHARDVILLE, WI 05431486: Flow=140cfs,Stage=3.96ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,TURTLE CREEK AT CARVERS ROCK ROAD NEAR CLINTON, WI 05429500: Flow=190cfs,Stage=5.94ft,2014-08-27 08:00,76-90,YAHARA RIVER AT MC FARLAND, WI 05426000: Flow=291cfs,Stage=2.48ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,CRAWFISH RIVER AT MILFORD, WI 05423500: Flow=31cfs,Stage=2.39ft,2014-08-27 09:30,76-90,SOUTH BRANCH ROCK RIVER AT WAUPUN, WI 05407000: Flow=7850cfs,Stage=2.15ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-08-27 09:45,76-90,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MUSCODA, WI 05405000: Flow=380cfs,Stage=8.03ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,BARABOO RIVER NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403500: Flow=321cfs,Stage=4.02ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,LEMONWEIR RIVER AT NEW LISBON, WI 05397500: Flow=172cfs,Stage=0.94ft,2014-08-27 09:00,76-90,EAU CLAIRE RIVER AT KELLY, WI 05369500: Flow=6700cfs,Stage=4.49ft,Floodstage=13ft,2014-08-27 09:45,76-90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT DURAND, WI 05368000: Flow=351cfs,Stage=4.28ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,HAY RIVER AT WHEELER, WI 05340500: Flow=3500cfs,Stage=3.47ft,2014-08-27 09:30,76-90,ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 05333500: Flow=1380cfs,Stage=1.54ft,2014-08-27 09:30,76-90,ST. CROIX RIVER NEAR DANBURY, WI 04079000: Flow=1350cfs,Stage=2.57ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-08-27 08:00,76-90,WOLF RIVER AT NEW LONDON, WI 04078500: Flow=191cfs,Stage=2.99ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,EMBARRASS RIVER NEAR EMBARRASS, WI 04073500: Flow=961cfs,Stage=9.23ft,Floodstage=13ft,2014-08-27 09:15,76-90,FOX RIVER AT BERLIN, WI 04063500: Flow=1710cfs,Stage=15.23ft,2014-08-27 09:30,76-90,MENOMINEE RIVER AT TWIN FALLS NEAR IRON MT, MI 04037500: Flow=50cfs,Stage=4.73ft,2014-08-27 10:00,76-90,CISCO BRANCH ONTONAGON R AT CISCO LAKE OUTLET, MI 04027000: Flow=313cfs,Stage=2.97ft,2014-08-27 09:45,76-90,BAD RIVER NEAR ODANAH, WI 04063700: Flow=30cfs,Stage=1.82ft,2014-08-27 09:30,10-24,POPPLE RIVER NEAR FENCE, WI 05544200: Flow=33cfs,Stage=2.53ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,MUKWONAGO RIVER AT MUKWONAGO, WI 05527800: Flow=26cfs,Stage=3.69ft,2014-08-27 08:45,25-75,DES PLAINES RIVER AT RUSSELL, IL 05432500: Flow=155cfs,Stage=2.57ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,PECATONICA RIVER AT DARLINGTON, WI 05430150: Flow=118cfs,Stage=5.39ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,BADFISH CREEK NEAR COOKSVILLE, WI 05427965: Flow=0.55cfs,Stage=0.50ft,2014-08-27 07:00,25-75,SPRING HARBOR STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 05427718: Flow=17cfs,Stage=1.15ft,2014-08-27 09:00,25-75,YAHARA RIVER AT WINDSOR, WI 05426250: Flow=88cfs,Stage=2.12ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,BARK RIVER NEAR ROME, WI 05414820: Flow=26cfs,Stage=4.82ft,2014-08-27 08:15,25-75,SINSINAWA RIVER NEAR MENOMINEE, IL 05414000: Flow=70cfs,Stage=3.38ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,PLATTE RIVER NEAR ROCKVILLE, WI 05413500: Flow=149cfs,Stage=4.98ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,GRANT RIVER AT BURTON, WI 05410490: Flow=591cfs,Stage=6.94ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-08-27 09:45,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STEUBEN, WI 05408000: Flow=135cfs,Stage=2.86ft,Floodstage=15ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT LA FARGE, WI 05399500: Flow=31cfs,Stage=2.80ft,2014-08-27 09:00,25-75,BIG EAU PLEINE RIVER AT STRATFORD, WI 05395000: Flow=2040cfs,Stage=4.86ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MERRILL, WI 05391000: Flow=427cfs,Stage=2.03ft,2014-08-27 09:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER @ RAINBOW LAKE NR LAKE TOMAHAWK,WI 05379500: Flow=449cfs,Stage=4.99ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-08-27 09:45,25-75,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT DODGE, WI 05365500: Flow=3360cfs,Stage=4.30ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT CHIPPEWA FALLS, WI 05360500: Flow=887cfs,Stage=5.46ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05356500: Flow=850cfs,Stage=2.14ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05356000: Flow=570cfs,Stage=4.87ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT BISHOPS BRIDGE NEAR WINTER, WI 04087240: Flow=59cfs,Stage=2.76ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,ROOT RIVER AT RACINE, WI 04087233: Flow=13cfs,Stage=2.37ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,ROOT RIVER CANAL NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087220: Flow=23cfs,Stage=2.31ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087204: Flow=9.7cfs,Stage=2.47ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,OAK CREEK AT SOUTH MILWAUKEE, WI 04087159: Flow=9.4cfs,Stage=6.30ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,KINNICKINNIC RIVER @ S. 11TH STREET @ MILWAUKEE,WI 04087120: Flow=34cfs,Stage=1.78ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,MENOMONEE RIVER AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087088: Flow=7.9cfs,Stage=3.20ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,UNDERWOOD CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087030: Flow=8.8cfs,Stage=3.01ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,MENOMONEE RIVER AT MENOMONEE FALLS, WI 04085200: Flow=24cfs,Stage=8.91ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,KEWAUNEE RIVER NEAR KEWAUNEE, WI 04074950: Flow=295cfs,Stage=7.81ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,WOLF RIVER AT LANGLADE, WI 04071000: Flow=391cfs,Stage=1.17ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,OCONTO RIVER NEAR GILLETT, WI 04069500: Flow=585cfs,Stage=2.05ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PESHTIGO, WI 04067500: Flow=2350cfs,Stage=9.39ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR MC ALLISTER, WI 04066800: Flow=2170cfs,Stage=10.22ft,2014-08-27 08:00,25-75,MENOMINEE RIVER AT KOSS, MI 04066500: Flow=126cfs,Stage=2.42ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,PIKE RIVER AT AMBERG, WI 04066003: Flow=1950cfs,Stage=7.68ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,MENOMINEE RIVER BELOW PEMENE CREEK NEAR PEMBINE,WI 04064500: Flow=187cfs,Stage=1.91ft,2014-08-27 09:00,25-75,PINE RIVER BELOW PINE R POWERPLANT NR FLORENCE, WI 04063000: Flow=1300cfs,Stage=3.87ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-08-27 10:00,25-75,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR FLORENCE, WI 04060993: Flow=227cfs,Stage=3.56ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,BRULE RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 2 NEAR FLORENCE, WI 04060500: Flow=49cfs,Stage=4.14ft,2014-08-27 09:30,25-75,IRON RIVER AT CASPIAN, MI 04031000: Flow=63cfs,Stage=2.20ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-08-27 10:00,25-75,BLACK RIVER NEAR BESSEMER, MI 04024430: Flow=132cfs,Stage=4.80ft,2014-08-27 09:15,25-75,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI 464646092052900: Stage=602.96ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 450456092225801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.011ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 1 NEAR CYLON, WI 450437092181901: Flow=0.005640cfs,Stage=0.008ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 3 NEAR EMERALD, WI 450115092180101: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.006ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 2 NR WOODVILLE, WI 445322088281801: Stage=91.39ft,2014-08-27 10:00,Not ranked,BERRY LAKE NEAR SHAWANO, WI 441624088045601: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.017ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441546088082001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.050ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 2 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045002: Flow=0.004320cfs,Stage=0.102ft,2014-08-27 09:05,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER TILE 1 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045001: Flow=0.002000cfs,Stage=0.004ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY 3 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 434425090462401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.009ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 6 AT CASHTON, WI 434311090461401: Flow=0.004030cfs,Stage=0.008ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 4 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434250090461401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.005ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 5 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434246090465801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.004ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 3 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434244090470801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.000ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 2 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434209090491101: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.017ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 1 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434034088252401: Flow=0.005870cfs,Stage=0.018ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,SCF WEST BR MILWAUKEE RIVER WATERWAY 1 NR BYRON,WI 433727088215801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.003ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,SCF W BR MILWAUKEE RIVER WATERWAY 2 NR ASHFORD, WI 433615088202501: Flow=0.003400cfs,Stage=0.003ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,SCF W BR MILWAUKEE RIVER WATERWAY 3 NR ASHFORD, WI 431250089282901: Flow=0.002600cfs,Stage=0.024ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DANE COUNTY MRBI WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR WAUNAKEE, WI 431212089314801: Stage=0.009ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,DANE CO MRBI WATERWAY 2 NR SPRINGFIELD CORNERS, WI 431208089314901: Stage=0.100ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,DANE CO. MRBI TILE NO. 1 NR SPRINGFIELD CORNERS,WI 430532089315602: Stage=0.062ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-OUTLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430532089315601: Stage=-0.051ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-INLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430428089325701: 2012-06-24 23:00,Not ranked,WEST OLD SAUK ROAD STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089282000: Flow=0.00cfs,2013-04-14 23:45,Stage=0.02ft,2014-08-27 09:15:00,Not ranked,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089183501: Stage=0.00ft,2014-08-27 08:02,Not ranked,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES DOWNSTRM MADISON, WI 430401089304501: Stage=0.01ft,2014-08-27 06:45,Not ranked,GRAY FOX TRAIL STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430358089281901: Stage=0.04ft,2014-08-26 21:20,Not ranked,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE (EAST) STORM SEWR @ MADISON,WI 430356089293601: Stage=0.03ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,SOUTH YELLOWSTONE DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430356089183502: Stage=-0.04ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES MIDDLE MADISON, WI 430302089224101: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-08-15 23:45,Not ranked,JOHN NOLEN DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 425715089164700: Stage=3.61ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LAKE KEGONSA AT BARBER DRIVE NEAR STOUGHTON, WI 424848088083100: Stage=8.40ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,WIND LAKE AT OUTLET AT WIND LAKE, WI 423525088260400: Stage=2.65ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,GENEVA LAKE AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 055451345: Flow=34cfs,Stage=8.48ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER AT CENTER STREET AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 054279465: Flow=3.3cfs,Stage=2.48ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,S FORK PHEASANT BRANCH @ DEMING WAY @ MIDDLETON,WI 053813595: Flow=1000cfs,Stage=36.87ft,Floodstage=47ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER DS ST HWY 54 AT BLACK RIVER FALLS, WI 053674967: Flow=28cfs,Stage=4.56ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,TROUT CREEK AT TENTH STREET NEAR BLOOMER, WI 053416972: Flow=55cfs,Stage=4.04ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ COUNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY T AT JEWETT,WI 053416966: Flow=1.3cfs,Stage=3.21ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,DRY RUN AT 190TH STREET NEAR JEWETT, WI 040871488: Flow=5.8cfs,Stage=11.21ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CK @ ST. LUKES HOSPITAL @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.10ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,HOLMES AVE CRK TRIB @ GMIA OUTFALL #1 AT MILWAUKEE 040871475: Flow=1.2cfs,Stage=10.94ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK @ GMIA OUTFALL #7 @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871473: Flow=0.32cfs,Stage=10.68ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK AT GMIA INFALL AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040869416: Flow=2.4cfs,Stage=3.60ft,2014-08-27 06:05,Not ranked,LINCOLN CREEK @ SHERMAN BOULEVARD AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040857005: Flow=5.0cfs,Stage=4.39ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,OTTER CREEK AT WILLOW ROAD NEAR PLYMOUTH, WI 040854592: Flow=0.99cfs,Stage=3.68ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,FISHER CREEK AT HOWARDS GROVE, WI 040851385: Flow=1280cfs,Stage=579.49ft,2014-08-27 09:20,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OIL TANK DEPOT AT GREEN BAY, WI 040851325: Flow=1.1cfs,Stage=1.95ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BAIRD CREEK AT SUPERIOR ROAD AT GREEN BAY, WI 040734605: Flow=149cfs,Stage=6.57ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,GREEN LAKE SW INLET @ CT HIGHWY K NR GREEN LAKE,WI 040263491: Flow=76cfs,Stage=7.04ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,NORTH FISH CREEK NEAR MOQUAH, WI 040263205: Flow=19cfs,Stage=1.34ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,WHITTLESEY CREEK NEAR ASHLAND, WI 05548170: Flow=17cfs,2013-10-01 00:00,Not ranked,NORTH BRANCH NIPPERSINK CREEK AT GENOA CITY, WI 05548000: Stage=4.29ft,2014-08-27 08:15,Not ranked,NIPPERSINK LAKE AT FOX LAKE, IL 05547500: Stage=4.35ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,FOX LAKE NEAR LAKE VILLA, IL 05547000: Stage=4.42ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,CHANNEL LAKE NEAR ANTIOCH, IL 05545750: Flow=515cfs,Stage=6.69ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER NEAR NEW MUNSTER, WI 05544475: Stage=4.54ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT ROCHESTER, WI 05544385: Stage=11.90ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,MUSKEGO (BIG MUSKEGO) LAKE OUTLET NR WIND LAKE, WI 05527950: Flow=28cfs,Stage=6.78ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,MILL CREEK AT OLD MILL CREEK, IL 05527910: Flow=15cfs,Stage=17.10ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK NEAR MILBURN, IL 05527905: Flow=5.7cfs,Stage=12.03ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,HASTINGS CREEK NEAR LINDENHURST, IL 05527900: Flow=50cfs,Stage=9.33ft,2014-08-27 08:45,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK AT HICKORY CORNERS, IL 05438283: Flow=1.7cfs,Stage=4.80ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,PISCASAW CREEK NEAR WALWORTH, WI 05435950: Flow=95cfs,Stage=3.85ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,SUGAR RIVER NEAR VERONA, WI 05435943: Flow=14cfs,Stage=4.52ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BADGER MILL CREEK AT VERONA, WI 05432927: Flow=14cfs,Stage=10.77ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,PLEASANT VALLEY CREEK @ CTH H NR BLANCHARDVILLE,WI 05432695: Flow=8.8cfs,Stage=7.52ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,RIDGEWAY BRANCH NEAR HOLLANDALE, WI 05431016: Flow=1.4cfs,Stage=8.38ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,JACKSON CREEK AT MOUND ROAD NEAR ELKHORN, WI 05429700: Flow=304cfs,Stage=6.71ft,2014-08-27 08:10,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER @ FORTON STREET BRIDGE @ STOUGHTON,WI 05429485: Stage=5.99ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LAKE WAUBESA AT MC FARLAND, WI 05429000: Stage=6.27ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LAKE MONONA AT MADISON, WI 05428500: Flow=61cfs,Stage=6.61ft,2014-08-27 08:05,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT EAST MAIN STREET AT MADISON, WI 05428000: Stage=10.03ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON, WI 05427943: Flow=1.3cfs,Stage=2.95ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,PHEASANT BRANCH AT AIRPORT ROAD NEAR MIDDLETON, WI 05427930: Flow=14cfs,Stage=10.60ft,2014-08-27 06:10,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK AT CT HIGHWAY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427927: Flow=2.5cfs,Stage=2.44ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK @ CT HIGHWAY Q NR WAUNAKEE, WI 05427910: Stage=10.17ft,2014-08-27 06:05:00,Not ranked,Equipment malfunction,SIXMILE CREEK @ COUNTY TRNK HGHWY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427880: Flow=4.7cfs,Stage=3.13ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 19 NEAR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427850: Flow=75cfs,Stage=10.14ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 113 AT MADISON, WI 05427530: Flow=1990cfs,Stage=2.71ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT NEWVILLE, WI 05427235: Stage=6.42ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,LAKE KOSHKONONG NEAR NEWVILLE, WI 05427085: Flow=991cfs,Stage=11.35ft,2014-08-27 02:00,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT ROBERT STREET AT FORT ATKINSON, WI 05426380: Flow=2.3cfs,Stage=0.74ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,PARADISE SPRINGS CREEK NEAR EAGLE, WI 05426350: Flow=3.1cfs,Stage=0.38ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,SCUPPERNONG RIVER UPSTREAM OF MARL PIT NR EAGLE,WI 05426067: Flow=26cfs,Stage=12.51ft,2014-08-27 04:00,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT NAGAWICKA ROAD AT DELAFIELD, WI 05426060: Flow=21cfs,Stage=3.14ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT COUNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY K NR MERTON, WI 05425912: Flow=264cfs,Stage=840.75ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,BEAVERDAM RIVER AT BEAVER DAM, WI 05424057: Flow=160cfs,Stage=7.36ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT HORICON, WI 05411500: Stage=12.10ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,Mississippi River at Clayton, IA 05408480: Flow=2.1cfs,Stage=2.68ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,W FORK KICKAPOO R AT PEACEFUL VALLEY RD NR CASHTON 05408476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.001ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,WEST FORK KICKAPOO RIVER @ OGDEN AVE AT CASHTON,WI 05407470: Flow=55cfs,Stage=8.34ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 33 AT ONTARIO, WI 05406479: Stage=2.84ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CK NR TREATMENT PLNT @ CROSS PLAINS,WI 05406469: Flow=1.6cfs,Stage=2.19ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BREWERY CREEK-UPSTREAM SITE-AT CROSS PLAINS, WI 05406457: Flow=11cfs,Stage=2.01ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CREEK NR BREWERY RD AT CROSS PLAINS,WI 05404500: Stage=8.05ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,DEVILS LAKE NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403000: Flow=470cfs,Stage=10.72ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT NECEDAH, WI 05400625: Flow=4.0cfs,Stage=3.16ft,2014-08-27 07:45,Not ranked,LITTLE PLOVER RIVER NEAR PLOVER, WI 05399550: Flow=12cfs,Stage=5.37ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,FENWOOD CREEK AT BRADLEY, WI 05393500: Flow=82cfs,Stage=2.20ft,2014-08-25 07:00,Not ranked,SPIRIT RIVER AT SPIRIT FALLS, WI 05390500: Stage=89.79ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,ANVIL LAKE NEAR EAGLE RIVER, WI 05390100: Stage=80.34ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,LAC VIEUX DESERT NEAR LAND O\'LAKES, WI 05389500: Flow=21700cfs,2013-10-30 00:00,Stage=8.22ft,2014-08-27 09:45:00,Floodstage=16ft,Not ranked,Mississippi River at McGregor, IA 05389400: Flow=21cfs,Stage=4.21ft,2014-08-27 10:00,Not ranked,Bloody Run Creek near Marquette, IA 05389000: Flow=96cfs,Stage=5.23ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,Yellow River near Ion, IA 05386400: Stage=30.87ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383075: Flow=292cfs,Stage=2.50ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05382325: Flow=158cfs,Stage=3.37ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER AT SPARTA, WI 05382284: Flow=40cfs,Stage=5.47ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 21 NEAR ANGELO, WI 05382267: Flow=77cfs,Stage=6.51ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWY BB NR TOMAH,WI 05382257: Flow=2.3cfs,Stage=1.71ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT YARD ROAD NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382255: Flow=2.3cfs,Stage=2.47ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT SIXTEENTH COURT NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382000: Flow=1290cfs,2014-08-27 02:00,Stage=4.12ft,2014-08-27 09:45:00,Floodstage=12ft,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER NEAR GALESVILLE, WI 05379400: Flow=406cfs,Stage=3.58ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT ARCADIA, WI 05378500: Stage=5.65ft,Floodstage=13ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MN 05365550: Flow=3390cfs,Stage=6.02ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER BELOW DELLS DAM AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05364422: Flow=1.9cfs,Stage=2.24ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,COMO CREEK TRIBUTARY NEAR BLOOMER, WI 05357335: Flow=59cfs,Stage=4.74ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,BEAR RIVER NEAR MANITOWISH WATERS, WI 05357245: Flow=35cfs,Stage=1.18ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,TROUT RIVER AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357230: Flow=3.6cfs,Stage=7.99ft,2014-08-27 06:30,Not ranked,NORTH CREEK AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357225: Flow=2.9cfs,Stage=7.88ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,STEVENSON CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357215: Flow=11cfs,Stage=1.42ft,2014-08-27 06:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357206: Flow=3.9cfs,Stage=0.68ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK SITE NO. 3 NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05344500: Stage=25.75ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,Very low value,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05344490: Flow=2670cfs,2014-08-13 11:00,Stage=25.70ft,2014-08-27 09:15:00,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=134cfs,Stage=10.60ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341752: Flow=157cfs,Stage=3.94ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ WILLOW R STATE PARK NR BURKHARDT,WI 05341694: Flow=7.7cfs,Stage=4.47ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,SOUTH FORK WILLOW RIVER AT US HWY 63 NEAR CYLON,WI 05341687: Flow=33cfs,Stage=5.01ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 46 NEAR DEER PARK,WI 05331833: Flow=144cfs,Stage=1.89ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,NAMEKAGON RIVER AT LEONARDS, WI 04087214: Flow=14cfs,Stage=10.91ft,2014-08-26 08:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT GRANGE AVENUE AT GREENFIELD, WI 04087170: Stage=8.82ft,2014-08-27 06:05,Not ranked,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MOUTH AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087142: Flow=478cfs,Stage=12.88ft,2014-08-27 09:10,Not ranked,MENOMONEE RIVER AT 16TH STREET AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087119: Flow=2.1cfs,Stage=10.13ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,HONEY CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087070: Flow=3.8cfs,Stage=3.77ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087050: Flow=0.97cfs,Stage=1.95ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER NEAR FREISTADT, WI 04086139: Flow=65cfs,Stage=2.98ft,2014-08-20 02:00,Not ranked,WEST BRANCH MILWAUKEE RIVER NEAR KEWASKUM, WI 04086120: Flow=6.9cfs,Stage=4.29ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,WEST BRANCH MILWAUKEE RIVER @ CTH K NEAR LOMIRA,WI 04086110: Flow=2.0cfs,Stage=2.49ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,WEST BRANCH MILWAUKEE RIVER AT CTH F NEAR BYRON,WI 04085108: Flow=4.7cfs,Stage=4.55ft,2014-08-27 09:00,Not ranked,EAST RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY ZZ NR GREENLEAF,WI 04084911: Flow=4.1cfs,Stage=2.53ft,2014-08-27 07:45,Not ranked,PLUM CREEK NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084445: Flow=3892cfs,Stage=5.44ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT APPLETON, WI 04084255: Stage=2.99ft,2014-08-27 08:05,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, WI 04082500: Stage=3.14ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO AT OSHKOSH, WI 04082400: Flow=-30cfs,Stage=6.40ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OSHKOSH, WI 04080798: Stage=8.70ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,TOMORROW RIVER NEAR NELSONVILLE, WI 04077630: Flow=108cfs,Stage=5.80ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,RED RIVER AT MORGAN ROAD NEAR MORGAN, WI 04073466: Flow=23cfs,Stage=6.86ft,2014-08-27 08:05,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT SPAULDING ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073458: Flow=0.53cfs,Stage=4.44ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,ROY CREEK AT ROY CREEK ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073365: Flow=692cfs,Stage=4.52ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT PRINCETON, WI 04072150: Flow=3.5cfs,Stage=11.29ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,DUCK CREEK NEAR HOWARD, WI 04072076: Stage=2.37ft,2014-08-27 08:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT FLORIST DRIVE AT ONEIDA, WI 04071765: Flow=395cfs,Stage=4.50ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,OCONTO RIVER NEAR OCONTO, WI 04069416: Flow=642cfs,Stage=8.14ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PORTERFIELD, WI 04067958: Flow=231cfs,Stage=3.99ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER NEAR WABENO, WI 04066030: Flow=1980cfs,Stage=7.20ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT WHITE RAPIDS DAM NEAR BANAT, MI 04065106: Flow=1690cfs,Stage=5.98ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT NIAGARA, WI 04062011: Flow=491cfs,Stage=6.90ft,2014-08-27 09:15,Not ranked,BRULE RIVER NEAR COMMONWEALTH, WI 04037400: Stage=4.00ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,CISCO LAKE NEAR WATERSMEET, MI 04027635: Stage=1.27ft,2014-08-27 10:00,Not ranked,BAD RIVER US 1.5mi ABOVE MOUTH NEAR ODANAH, WI. 04026859: Stage=5.22ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,POTATO RIVER AT UPSON, WI 04026561: Flow=25cfs,Stage=3.33ft,2014-08-27 09:30,Not ranked,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT STRICKER ROAD NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026530: Stage=5.26ft,2014-08-27 09:45,Not ranked,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT CAROLINE LK RD NR MELLEN, WI 04026511: Stage=6.57ft,2014-08-27 07:45,Not ranked,BAD RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 169 NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026450: Flow=29cfs,Stage=1.28ft,2014-08-27 10:00,Not ranked,BAD RIVER NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026390: Flow=26cfs,Stage=6.12ft,2014-08-27 06:00,Not ranked,BEARTRAP CREEK AT U.S. HIGHWAY 2 NEAR ASHLAND, WI Go to WaterWatch (offsite) for a larger map with additional options