Mercury Studies


USGS Water Science Centers are located in each state.

There is a USGS Water Science Center office in each State. Washington Oregon California Idaho Nevada Montana Wyoming Utah Colorado Arizona New Mexico North Dakota South Dakota Nebraska Kansas Oklahoma Texas Minnesota Iowa Missouri Arkansas Louisiana Wisconsin Illinois Mississippi Michigan Indiana Ohio Kentucky Tennessee Alabama Pennsylvania West Virginia Georgia Florida Caribbean Alaska Hawaii New York Vermont New Hampshire Maine Massachusetts South Carolina North Carolina Rhode Island Virginia Connecticut New Jersey Maryland-Delaware-D.C.

Mercury Cycling in the Environment

Mercury cycling pathways in aquatic environments are very complex. The various forms of mercury can be converted from one to the next; most important is the conversion to methylmercury (CH3Hg+), the most toxic form. Ultimately, mercury ends up in the sediments, fish and wildlife, or evades back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

mercury cycleAquatic Mercury Cycle

At right, Figure 6 shows a schematic drawing of mercury cycling in an aquatic ecosystem.1 With the exception of isolated cases of known point sources, the ultimate source of mercury to most aquatic ecosystems is deposition from the atmosphere, primarily associated with rainfall.

As depicted in this figure, atmospheric deposition contains the three principal forms of mercury, although the majority is as inorganic mercury (Hg2+, ionic mercury). Once in surface water, mercury enters a complex cycle in which one form can be converted to another. It can be brought to the sediments by particle settling and then later released by diffusion or resuspension. It can enter the food chain, or it can be released back to the atmosphere by volatilization.

The concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH have a strong effect on the ultimate fate of mercury in an ecosystem. Studies have shown that for the same species of fish taken from the same region, increasing the acidity of the water (decreasing pH) and/or the DOC content generally results in higher body burdens in fish. Many scientists currently think that higher acidity and DOC levels enhance the mobility of mercury in the environment, thus making it more likely to enter the food chain.

Many of the details of the aquatic mercury cycle are still unknown, however, and remain areas of active research.

How does mercury enter the food chain?

The exact mechanism(s) by which mercury enters the food chain remain largely unknown, and probably vary among ecosystems. We do know, however, that certain bacteria play an important early role. Studies have shown that bacteria that process sulfate (SO4=) in the environment take up mercury in its inorganic form, and through metabolic processes convert it to methylmercury. The conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury is important for two reasons: (1) methylmercury is much more toxic than inorganic mercury, and (2) organisms require considerably longer to eliminate methylmercury. At this point, the methylmercury-containing bacteria may be consumed by the next higher level in the food chain, or the bacteria may release the methylmercury to the water where it can quickly adsorb to plankton, which are also consumed by the next level in the food chain.

Where does atmospheric mercury come from?

There are many sources of mercury to the environment, both natural and man related. Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean. The primary human-related sources include: coal combustion, chlorine alkali processing, waste incineration, and metal processing. Best estimates to date suggest that human activities have about doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere, and the atmospheric burden is increasing by about 1.5 percent per year.

Has there always been mercury contamination, or is this a recent problem?

This is a difficult question to answer, in part because of a lack of adequately preserved fish specimens of preindustrial age to compare against contemporary samples. However, several lines of evidence from recent studies on Wisconsin lakes suggest that increase pemissions to the atmosphere, and subsequent higher deposition rates to lakes, likely translate into higher mercury levels in fish. Although the total amount of mercury delivered to one of these lakes annually is very small it is strongly absorbed by organic material floating in the water such as plankton or bacteria. These microorganisms are consumed by organisms higher in the food chain, or after dying, settle to the bottom of the lake and are incorporated into bottom sediments. Studies of sediment cores show that younger sediments deposited since industrialization have mercury concentrations that are about 3-5 times that of historical sediments. Thus, the fact that these sediments are primarily composed of dead microorganisms that were once the bottom of the food chain would suggest that modern levels of mercury in the food chain are elevated over preindustrial times.

If human-related emissions could be eliminated or reduced, how long would it take for ecosystems to recover?

The only way to attempt to answer this question is to incorporate all the best information currently available on how mercury behaves in the environment into a computer model. Such a model was constructed as part of the research effort on northern Wisconsin lakes. Modeled scenarios predict that if emissions could be reduced by 5 percent, it would take 8 years before any change in fish concentrations would be observed, and the decrease would be small.

FS 216-95

Read a more complete explanation of the mercury cycle:

USFS Fact Sheet FS 216-95, Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems, by Dave Krabbenhoft and David Rickert (1995).





1) Figure 6 reprinted with permission from Mercury Pollution: Integration and Synthesis. Copyright Lewis Publishers, an imprint of CRC Press.


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05437050: Flow=2590cfs,Stage=7.40ft,2015-11-25 02:00,High,PECATONICA RIVER NR SHIRLAND, ILL 05367500: Flow=1470cfs,Stage=3.88ft,2015-11-25 01:00,High,RED CEDAR RIVER NEAR COLFAX, WI 05527800: Flow=164cfs,Stage=5.16ft,2015-11-25 01:30,>90,DES PLAINES RIVER AT RUSSELL, IL 05436500: Flow=537cfs,Stage=1.84ft,2015-11-25 02:00,>90,SUGAR RIVER NEAR BRODHEAD, WI 05433000: Flow=191cfs,Stage=5.09ft,2015-11-25 02:15,>90,EAST BRANCH PECATONICA RIVER NR BLANCHARDVILLE, WI 05431486: Flow=219cfs,Stage=4.34ft,2015-11-25 02:15,>90,TURTLE CREEK AT CARVERS ROCK ROAD NEAR CLINTON, WI 05429500: Flow=328cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2015-11-25 02:00,>90,YAHARA RIVER AT MC FARLAND, WI 05426000: Flow=711cfs,Stage=3.18ft,2015-11-25 01:15,>90,CRAWFISH RIVER AT MILFORD, WI 05407000: Flow=12400cfs,Stage=3.11ft,Floodstage=9ft,2015-11-25 01:45,>90,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MUSCODA, WI 05406500: Flow=50cfs,Stage=2.06ft,2015-11-25 00:45,>90,BLACK EARTH CREEK AT BLACK EARTH, WI 05378500: Flow=62100cfs,Stage=8.25ft,Floodstage=13ft,2015-11-25 01:45,>90,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MN 05370000: Flow=33cfs,Stage=12.63ft,2015-11-25 01:30,>90,EAU GALLE RIVER AT SPRING VALLEY, WI 05369500: Flow=13900cfs,Stage=6.83ft,Floodstage=13ft,2015-11-25 01:45,>90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT DURAND, WI 05356500: Flow=3240cfs,Stage=4.61ft,2015-11-25 01:45,>90,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 05344500: Flow=40600cfs,Stage=29.14ft,2015-11-25 02:15,>90,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05548280: Flow=169cfs,Stage=4.59ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,NIPPERSINK CREEK NEAR SPRING GROVE, IL 05543830: Flow=127cfs,Stage=3.29ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,FOX RIVER AT WAUKESHA, WI 05437500: Flow=5480cfs,Stage=4.45ft,2015-11-25 01:30,76-90,ROCK RIVER AT ROCKTON, IL 05432500: Flow=198cfs,Stage=2.97ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,PECATONICA RIVER AT DARLINGTON, WI 05430500: Flow=2550cfs,Stage=5.39ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,ROCK RIVER AT AFTON, WI 05430175: Flow=542cfs,Stage=4.75ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,YAHARA RIVER NEAR FULTON, WI 05427965: Flow=0.35cfs,Stage=0.46ft,2015-11-25 01:00,76-90,SPRING HARBOR STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 05427948: Flow=4.9cfs,Stage=3.55ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,PHEASANT BRANCH AT MIDDLETON, WI 05404000: Flow=7070cfs,Stage=4.54ft,2015-11-25 01:30,76-90,WISCONSIN RIVER NEAR WISCONSIN DELLS, WI 05396000: Flow=208cfs,Stage=2.80ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,BIG RIB RIVER AT RIB FALLS, WI 05393500: Flow=98cfs,Stage=2.33ft,2015-11-24 23:00,76-90,SPIRIT RIVER AT SPIRIT FALLS, WI 05381000: Flow=404cfs,Stage=4.12ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,BLACK RIVER AT NEILLSVILLE, WI 05365500: Flow=5520cfs,Stage=5.55ft,2015-11-25 01:15,76-90,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT CHIPPEWA FALLS, WI 05360500: Flow=2070cfs,Stage=6.86ft,2015-11-25 01:15,76-90,FLAMBEAU RIVER NEAR BRUCE, WI 04087159: Flow=11cfs,Stage=6.35ft,2015-11-25 01:45,76-90,KINNICKINNIC RIVER @ S. 11TH STREET @ MILWAUKEE,WI 04087120: Flow=64cfs,Stage=2.04ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,MENOMONEE RIVER AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087030: Flow=29cfs,Stage=3.49ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,MENOMONEE RIVER AT MENOMONEE FALLS, WI 04087000: Flow=430cfs,Stage=2.42ft,2015-11-25 02:15,76-90,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04086500: Flow=71cfs,Stage=5.87ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,CEDAR CREEK NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04086000: Flow=221cfs,Stage=2.34ft,2015-11-25 01:00,76-90,SHEBOYGAN RIVER AT SHEBOYGAN, WI 04079000: Flow=2530cfs,Stage=4.89ft,Floodstage=9ft,2015-11-24 23:00,76-90,WOLF RIVER AT NEW LONDON, WI 04078500: Flow=302cfs,Stage=3.29ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,EMBARRASS RIVER NEAR EMBARRASS, WI 04071000: Flow=793cfs,Stage=2.12ft,2015-11-25 01:15,76-90,OCONTO RIVER NEAR GILLETT, WI 04066500: Flow=233cfs,Stage=3.07ft,2015-11-25 02:00,76-90,PIKE RIVER AT AMBERG, WI 04062000: Flow=280cfs,Stage=3.41ft,2015-11-25 02:30,76-90,PAINT RIVER NEAR ALPHA, MI 04027000: Flow=587cfs,Stage=3.55ft,2015-11-25 01:45,76-90,BAD RIVER NEAR ODANAH, WI 04063000: Flow=785cfs,Stage=3.21ft,Floodstage=9ft,2015-11-25 02:00,10-24,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR FLORENCE, WI 05430150: Flow=102cfs,Stage=5.05ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,BADFISH CREEK NEAR COOKSVILLE, WI 05427718: Flow=25cfs,Stage=1.02ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,YAHARA RIVER AT WINDSOR, WI 05425500: Flow=357cfs,Stage=1.92ft,2015-11-25 01:15,25-75,ROCK RIVER AT WATERTOWN, WI 05423500: Flow=22cfs,Stage=2.29ft,Floodstage=6ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,SOUTH BRANCH ROCK RIVER AT WAUPUN, WI 05414820: Flow=21cfs,Stage=4.83ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,SINSINAWA RIVER NEAR MENOMINEE, IL 05413500: Flow=118cfs,Stage=4.75ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,GRANT RIVER AT BURTON, WI 05410490: Flow=447cfs,Stage=6.61ft,Floodstage=12ft,2015-11-25 01:45,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STEUBEN, WI 05408000: Flow=164cfs,Stage=2.87ft,Floodstage=15ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,KICKAPOO RIVER AT LA FARGE, WI 05405000: Flow=332cfs,Stage=7.83ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,BARABOO RIVER NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403500: Flow=376cfs,Stage=4.24ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,LEMONWEIR RIVER AT NEW LISBON, WI 05401050: Flow=53cfs,Stage=4.79ft,2015-11-25 00:00,25-75,TENMILE CREEK NEAR NEKOOSA, WI 05398000: Flow=3070cfs,Stage=14.30ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,WISCONSIN RIVER AT ROTHSCHILD, WI 05379500: Flow=454cfs,2015-11-25 00:45,Stage=4.96ft,2015-11-25 01:00:00,Floodstage=9ft,25-75,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT DODGE, WI 04087240: Flow=81cfs,Stage=2.82ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,ROOT RIVER AT RACINE, WI 04086600: Flow=380cfs,Stage=6.06ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,MILWAUKEE RIVER NEAR CEDARBURG, WI 04085427: Flow=230cfs,Stage=5.02ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,MANITOWOC RIVER AT MANITOWOC, WI 04081000: Flow=240cfs,Stage=1.67ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,WAUPACA RIVER NEAR WAUPACA, WI 04080000: Flow=407cfs,Stage=1.65ft,2015-11-25 00:00,25-75,LITTLE WOLF RIVER AT ROYALTON, WI 04073500: Flow=1050cfs,Stage=9.59ft,Floodstage=13ft,2015-11-25 02:15,25-75,FOX RIVER AT BERLIN, WI 04069500: Flow=876cfs,Stage=2.49ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PESHTIGO, WI 04060993: Flow=281cfs,Stage=3.80ft,2015-11-25 01:30,25-75,BRULE RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 2 NEAR FLORENCE, WI 04060500: Flow=57cfs,Stage=4.45ft,Floodstage=11ft,2015-11-25 01:30,25-75,IRON RIVER AT CASPIAN, MI 04037500: Flow=51cfs,Stage=4.76ft,2015-11-25 03:00,25-75,CISCO BRANCH ONTONAGON R AT CISCO LAKE OUTLET, MI 04031000: Flow=245cfs,Stage=2.89ft,Floodstage=10ft,2015-11-25 02:00,25-75,BLACK RIVER NEAR BESSEMER, MI 464646092052900: Flow=-10900cfs,Stage=602.58ft,2015-11-24 23:55,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 450456092225801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.022ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 1 NEAR CYLON, WI 450437092181901: Flow=0.003800cfs,Stage=0.009ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 3 NEAR EMERALD, WI 450115092180101: Flow=0.010500cfs,Stage=0.019ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-WILLOW WATERWAY 2 NR WOODVILLE, WI 445322088281801: Stage=92.04ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,BERRY LAKE NEAR SHAWANO, WI 442119088085501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.015ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 4 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 442114088085701: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.010ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI WATERWAY NUMBER 5 NR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 441624088045601: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.033ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 1 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441546088082001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.022ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY NUMBER 2 NR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045002: Flow=0.000520cfs,Stage=0.023ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER TILE 1 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 441520088045001: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.002ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,GLRI EAST RIVER WATERWAY 3 NEAR GREENLEAF, WI 434425090462401: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.009ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 6 AT CASHTON, WI 434311090461401: Flow=0.001260cfs,Stage=0.005ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 4 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434250090461401: Flow=0.011780cfs,Stage=0.004ft,2015-11-25 01:15,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 5 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434246090465801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.014ft,2015-11-25 01:15,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 3 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434244090470801: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=0.003ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 2 NEAR CASHTON, WI 434209090491101: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.009ft,2015-11-25 01:15,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS-JERSEY WATERWAY 1 NEAR CASHTON, WI 430649089181232: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.02ft,2015-11-24 20:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181231: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2015-11-24 20:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 3 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181222: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2015-11-24 20:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181221: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2015-11-24 20:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 2 DRAIN TILE @ MADISON, WI 430649089181212: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=-0.01ft,2015-11-24 20:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 OVERFLOW @ MADISON, WI 430649089181211: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.00ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT CELL 1 DRAIN TILE AT MADISON,WI 430649089181200: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.01ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,PERMEABLE PAVEMENT INFLUENT AT MADISON, WI 430532089315602: Stage=-0.031ft,2015-11-24 23:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-OUTLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430532089315601: Stage=-0.046ft,2015-11-24 23:00,Not ranked,BIO CELL SS-INLET-AT USGS OFFICE AT MIDDLETON, WI 430428089325701: 2012-06-24 23:00,Not ranked,WEST OLD SAUK ROAD STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089282000: Flow=0.00cfs,2013-04-14 23:45,Stage=0.02ft,2015-11-23 15:15:00,Not ranked,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430402089183501: Stage=0.03ft,2015-09-01 08:00,Not ranked,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES DOWNSTRM MADISON, WI 430401089304501: Stage=0.07ft,2015-11-23 15:15,Not ranked,GRAY FOX TRAIL STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430358089281901: Stage=0.07ft,2015-11-23 15:20,Not ranked,SOUTH KENOSHA DRIVE (EAST) STORM SEWR @ MADISON,WI 430356089293601: Stage=0.03ft,2015-11-23 15:15,Not ranked,SOUTH YELLOWSTONE DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 430356089183502: Stage=-0.17ft,2015-10-16 12:00:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,US HWY 51 WISDOT GRASS SWALES MIDDLE MADISON, WI 430302089224101: Flow=0.00cfs,2012-08-15 23:45,Not ranked,JOHN NOLEN DRIVE STORM SEWER AT MADISON, WI 425715089164700: Stage=2.99ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,LAKE KEGONSA AT BARBER DRIVE NEAR STOUGHTON, WI 424848088083100: Stage=7.85ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,WIND LAKE AT OUTLET AT WIND LAKE, WI 424008089050201: Flow=0.000040cfs,Stage=0.004ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 5 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423954089071501: Flow=0.000000cfs,Stage=-0.012ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,DISCOVERY FARMS CORE WATERWAY 1 NR JANESVILLE, WI 423525088260400: Stage=2.48ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,GENEVA LAKE AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 055451345: Flow=9.8cfs,Stage=8.39ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER AT CENTER STREET AT LAKE GENEVA, WI 054279465: Flow=0.63cfs,Stage=2.87ft,2015-11-24 21:00,Not ranked,S FORK PHEASANT BRANCH @ DEMING WAY @ MIDDLETON,WI 053813595: Flow=867cfs,Stage=36.83ft,Floodstage=47ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER DS ST HWY 54 AT BLACK RIVER FALLS, WI 053674967: Flow=24cfs,Stage=4.38ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,TROUT CREEK AT TENTH STREET NEAR BLOOMER, WI 053416966: Flow=0.92cfs,Stage=3.17ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DRY RUN AT 190TH STREET NEAR JEWETT, WI 040871488: Flow=7.2cfs,Stage=11.37ft,2015-11-24 23:15,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CK @ ST. LUKES HOSPITAL @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871476: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.10ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,HOLMES AVE CRK TRIB @ GMIA OUTFALL #1 AT MILWAUKEE 040871475: Flow=1.9cfs,Stage=11.03ft,2015-11-25 02:20,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK @ GMIA OUTFALL #7 @ MILWAUKEE,WI 040871473: Flow=0.45cfs,Stage=10.69ft,2015-11-24 23:00,Not ranked,WILSON PARK CREEK AT GMIA INFALL AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040869416: Flow=3.6cfs,Stage=3.66ft,2015-11-24 11:00,Not ranked,LINCOLN CREEK @ SHERMAN BOULEVARD AT MILWAUKEE, WI 040857005: Flow=5.5cfs,Stage=4.42ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,OTTER CREEK AT WILLOW ROAD NEAR PLYMOUTH, WI 040854592: Flow=4.1cfs,Stage=3.98ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,FISHER CREEK AT HOWARDS GROVE, WI 040851385: Flow=5180cfs,Stage=579.22ft,2015-11-25 02:20,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OIL TANK DEPOT AT GREEN BAY, WI 040734605: Flow=38cfs,Stage=6.12ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,GREEN LAKE SW INLET @ CT HIGHWY K NR GREEN LAKE,WI 040263205: Flow=18cfs,Stage=1.34ft,2015-11-24 14:35,Not ranked,WHITTLESEY CREEK NEAR ASHLAND, WI 05548170: Flow=17cfs,2013-10-01 00:00,Not ranked,NORTH BRANCH NIPPERSINK CREEK AT GENOA CITY, WI 05548000: Stage=3.31ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,NIPPERSINK LAKE AT FOX LAKE, IL 05547500: Stage=3.36ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,FOX LAKE NEAR LAKE VILLA, IL 05547000: Stage=3.46ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,CHANNEL LAKE NEAR ANTIOCH, IL 05545750: Flow=823cfs,Stage=7.42ft,Floodstage=11ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER NEAR NEW MUNSTER, WI 05544475: Stage=1.96ft,Floodstage=6ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT ROCHESTER, WI 05544385: Stage=11.82ft,2015-11-25 01:45,Not ranked,MUSKEGO (BIG MUSKEGO) LAKE OUTLET NR WIND LAKE, WI 05544348: Stage=1.62ft,2015-11-25 01:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT WATERFORD DAM, AT WATERFORD, WI 05544200: Flow=65cfs,Stage=2.57ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,MUKWONAGO RIVER AT MUKWONAGO, WI 05527950: Flow=71cfs,Stage=7.87ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,MILL CREEK AT OLD MILL CREEK, IL 05527910: Flow=33cfs,Stage=17.46ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK NEAR MILBURN, IL 05527905: Flow=7.0cfs,Stage=11.23ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,HASTINGS CREEK NEAR LINDENHURST, IL 05527900: Flow=22cfs,Stage=9.74ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,NORTH MILL CREEK AT HICKORY CORNERS, IL 05438283: Flow=1.9cfs,Stage=4.91ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,PISCASAW CREEK NEAR WALWORTH, WI 05435950: Flow=65cfs,Stage=3.50ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,SUGAR RIVER NEAR VERONA, WI 05435943: Flow=13cfs,Stage=4.52ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,BADGER MILL CREEK AT VERONA, WI 05434500: Flow=853cfs,Stage=6.72ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,PECATONICA RIVER AT MARTINTOWN, WI 05432927: Flow=33cfs,Stage=10.29ft,2015-11-24 13:00,Not ranked,PLEASANT VALLEY CREEK @ CTH H NR BLANCHARDVILLE,WI 05432695: Flow=18cfs,Stage=7.72ft,2015-11-24 13:00,Not ranked,RIDGEWAY BRANCH NEAR HOLLANDALE, WI 05431016: Flow=11cfs,Stage=8.66ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,JACKSON CREEK AT MOUND ROAD NEAR ELKHORN, WI 05429700: Flow=425cfs,Stage=6.84ft,2015-11-24 15:05,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER @ FORTON STREET BRIDGE @ STOUGHTON,WI 05429485: Stage=4.95ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,LAKE WAUBESA AT MC FARLAND, WI 05429000: Stage=5.34ft,2015-11-24 23:00,Not ranked,LAKE MONONA AT MADISON, WI 05428500: Flow=154cfs,Stage=5.60ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT EAST MAIN STREET AT MADISON, WI 05428000: Stage=9.47ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,LAKE MENDOTA AT MADISON, WI 05427943: Flow=2.4cfs,Stage=3.23ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,PHEASANT BRANCH AT AIRPORT ROAD NEAR MIDDLETON, WI 05427930: Flow=3.3cfs,Stage=9.95ft,2015-11-25 01:05,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK AT CT HIGHWAY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427927: Flow=4.1cfs,Stage=2.89ft,2015-11-25 01:10,Not ranked,DORN (SPRING) CREEK @ CT HIGHWAY Q NR WAUNAKEE, WI 05427910: Flow=22cfs,Stage=9.63ft,2015-11-25 01:05,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK @ COUNTY TRNK HGHWY M NR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427880: Flow=2.2cfs,Stage=2.71ft,2015-11-25 01:05,Not ranked,SIXMILE CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 19 NEAR WAUNAKEE,WI 05427850: Flow=42cfs,Stage=9.48ft,2015-11-25 02:05,Not ranked,YAHARA RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 113 AT MADISON, WI 05427530: Flow=1650cfs,Stage=2.81ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT NEWVILLE, WI 05427235: Stage=6.55ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,LAKE KOSHKONONG NEAR NEWVILLE, WI 05427085: Flow=1470cfs,Stage=11.64ft,2015-11-25 01:55,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT ROBERT STREET AT FORT ATKINSON, WI 05426380: Flow=1.2cfs,Stage=0.63ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,PARADISE SPRINGS CREEK NEAR EAGLE, WI 05426350: Flow=2.1cfs,Stage=0.22ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,SCUPPERNONG RIVER UPSTREAM OF MARL PIT NR EAGLE,WI 05426250: Flow=88cfs,Stage=2.18ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,BARK RIVER NEAR ROME, WI 05426067: Flow=21cfs,Stage=12.51ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,BARK RIVER AT NAGAWICKA ROAD AT DELAFIELD, WI 05425912: Flow=162cfs,Stage=840.52ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,BEAVERDAM RIVER AT BEAVER DAM, WI 05424057: Flow=111cfs,Stage=7.37ft,2015-11-24 23:59,Not ranked,ROCK RIVER AT HORICON, WI 05414000: Flow=69cfs,Stage=3.34ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,PLATTE RIVER NEAR ROCKVILLE, WI 05411500: Stage=13.27ft,2015-11-25 01:45,Not ranked,Mississippi River at Clayton, IA 05408480: Flow=1.1cfs,Stage=2.56ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,W FORK KICKAPOO R AT PEACEFUL VALLEY RD NR CASHTON 05408476: Flow=0.00cfs,2015-06-25 22:00,Not ranked,WEST FORK KICKAPOO RIVER @ OGDEN AVE AT CASHTON,WI 05407470: Flow=64cfs,Stage=8.40ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,KICKAPOO RIVER AT STATE HIGHWAY 33 AT ONTARIO, WI 05406479: Flow=20cfs,Stage=2.86ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CK NR TREATMENT PLNT @ CROSS PLAINS,WI 05406469: Flow=1.0cfs,Stage=2.14ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,BREWERY CREEK-UPSTREAM SITE-AT CROSS PLAINS, WI 05406457: Flow=15cfs,Stage=2.16ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,BLACK EARTH CREEK NR BREWERY RD AT CROSS PLAINS,WI 05404500: Stage=7.02ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,DEVILS LAKE NEAR BARABOO, WI 05403000: Flow=368cfs,Stage=10.19ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT NECEDAH, WI 05402000: Flow=103cfs,Stage=2.88ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,YELLOW RIVER AT BABCOCK, WI 05400625: Flow=4.2cfs,Stage=3.16ft,2015-11-25 00:45,Not ranked,LITTLE PLOVER RIVER NEAR PLOVER, WI 05399500: Flow=85cfs,Stage=3.34ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,BIG EAU PLEINE RIVER AT STRATFORD, WI 05397500: Flow=227cfs,Stage=1.14ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,EAU CLAIRE RIVER AT KELLY, WI 05395000: Flow=2540cfs,Stage=5.24ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,WISCONSIN RIVER AT MERRILL, WI 05394500: Flow=161cfs,Stage=2.49ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,PRAIRIE RIVER NEAR MERRILL, WI 05391000: Flow=356cfs,Stage=1.23ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,WISCONSIN RIVER @ RAINBOW LAKE NR LAKE TOMAHAWK,WI 05390685: Flow=8.3cfs,Stage=11.19ft,2015-11-25 01:30,Not ranked,MUSKELLUNGE CREEK NEAR ST. GERMAIN, WI 05390500: Stage=90.02ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,ANVIL LAKE NEAR EAGLE RIVER, WI 05389500: Flow=21700cfs,2013-10-30 00:00,Stage=10.26ft,2015-11-25 01:45:00,Floodstage=16ft,Not ranked,Mississippi River at McGregor, IA 05389400: Flow=14cfs,Stage=4.12ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,Bloody Run Creek near Marquette, IA 05389000: Flow=51cfs,Stage=4.83ft,2015-11-25 01:45,Not ranked,Yellow River near Ion, IA 05386400: Stage=31.75ft,2015-11-25 01:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383075: Flow=431cfs,Stage=3.20ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05382325: Flow=136cfs,Stage=3.44ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER AT SPARTA, WI 05382284: Flow=31cfs,Stage=5.65ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT STATE HIGHWAY 21 NEAR ANGELO, WI 05382267: Flow=58cfs,Stage=6.51ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWY BB NR TOMAH,WI 05382257: Flow=0.84cfs,Stage=1.69ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT YARD ROAD NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382255: Flow=1.7cfs,Stage=2.31ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,STILLWELL CREEK AT SIXTEENTH COURT NEAR TOMAH, WI 05382000: Flow=1640cfs,2015-11-24 15:00,Stage=4.77ft,2015-11-25 01:45:00,Floodstage=12ft,Not ranked,BLACK RIVER NEAR GALESVILLE, WI 05379400: Flow=360cfs,Stage=3.39ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,TREMPEALEAU RIVER AT ARCADIA, WI 05378490: Stage=9.42ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT LOCK AND DAM 5A NR WINONA, MN 05369000: Flow=2520cfs,Stage=8.08ft,2015-11-24 14:45,Not ranked,RED CEDAR RIVER AT MENOMONIE, WI 05368000: Flow=488cfs,Stage=5.00ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,HAY RIVER AT WHEELER, WI 05365550: Flow=6030cfs,Stage=7.20ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER BELOW DELLS DAM AT EAU CLAIRE, WI 05362000: Flow=719cfs,Stage=4.76ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,JUMP RIVER AT SHELDON, WI 05357335: Flow=79cfs,Stage=3.69ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,BEAR RIVER NEAR MANITOWISH WATERS, WI 05357245: Flow=41cfs,Stage=1.25ft,2015-11-25 00:00,Not ranked,TROUT RIVER AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357230: Flow=3.5cfs,Stage=7.89ft,2015-11-24 23:30,Not ranked,NORTH CREEK AT TROUT LAKE NEAR BOULDER JUNCTION,WI 05357225: Flow=1.5cfs,Stage=7.64ft,2015-11-24 23:15,Not ranked,STEVENSON CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357215: Flow=13cfs,Stage=1.51ft,2015-11-24 23:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK @ CT HWY M NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05357206: Flow=4.4cfs,Stage=0.50ft,2015-11-25 02:15,Not ranked,ALLEQUASH CREEK SITE NO. 3 NR BOULDER JUNCTION, WI 05356000: Flow=1720cfs,Stage=6.33ft,2015-11-24 15:30,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER AT BISHOPS BRIDGE NEAR WINTER, WI 05344490: Stage=29.21ft,2015-11-25 02:00:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=121cfs,Stage=10.56ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341752: Flow=221cfs,Stage=4.20ft,2015-11-25 01:05,Not ranked,WILLOW RIVER @ WILLOW R STATE PARK NR BURKHARDT,WI 05340500: Flow=10700cfs,Stage=6.34ft,2015-11-24 15:30,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 05333500: Flow=2150cfs,Stage=2.14ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER NEAR DANBURY, WI 05331833: Flow=182cfs,Stage=2.06ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,NAMEKAGON RIVER AT LEONARDS, WI 04087257: Flow=19cfs,Stage=1.82ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,PIKE RIVER NEAR RACINE, WI 04087233: Flow=9.3cfs,Stage=2.75ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER CANAL NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087220: Flow=22cfs,Stage=2.34ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER NEAR FRANKLIN, WI 04087214: Flow=1.7cfs,Stage=10.72ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER AT GRANGE AVENUE AT GREENFIELD, WI 04087204: Flow=8.5cfs,Stage=2.51ft,2015-11-24 15:25,Not ranked,OAK CREEK AT SOUTH MILWAUKEE, WI 04087170: Flow=-921cfs,Stage=8.61ft,2015-11-25 01:05,Not ranked,MILWAUKEE RIVER AT MOUTH AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087142: Flow=358cfs,Stage=13.29ft,2015-11-25 02:10,Not ranked,MENOMONEE RIVER AT 16TH STREET AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087119: Flow=5.2cfs,Stage=10.38ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,HONEY CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087088: Flow=6.2cfs,2015-11-24 15:05,Stage=8.24ft,2015-11-25 01:00:00,Not ranked,UNDERWOOD CREEK AT WAUWATOSA, WI 04087070: Flow=15cfs,Stage=4.72ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER AT MILWAUKEE, WI 04087050: Flow=5.7cfs,Stage=2.25ft,2015-11-25 02:10,Not ranked,LITTLE MENOMONEE RIVER NEAR FREISTADT, WI 04085200: Flow=39cfs,Stage=9.01ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,KEWAUNEE RIVER NEAR KEWAUNEE, WI 04085108: Flow=2.2cfs,Stage=4.49ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,EAST RIVER @ CNTY TRUNK HIGHWAY ZZ NR GREENLEAF,WI 04084927: Flow=2.6cfs,Stage=3.67ft,2015-11-25 00:00,Not ranked,WEST PLUM CREEK AT NEW ROAD NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084911: Flow=0.83cfs,Stage=2.39ft,2015-11-24 22:45,Not ranked,PLUM CREEK NEAR WRIGHTSTOWN, WI 04084445: Flow=6750cfs,Stage=6.09ft,2015-11-25 01:30,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT APPLETON, WI 04084255: Stage=2.20ft,2015-11-24 15:05,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO NEAR STOCKBRIDGE, WI 04082500: Stage=2.32ft,Floodstage=3.5ft,2015-11-25 02:00,Not ranked,LAKE WINNEBAGO AT OSHKOSH, WI 04082400: Flow=2930cfs,Stage=5.59ft,2015-11-24 23:15,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT OSHKOSH, WI 04080798: Flow=25cfs,Stage=8.59ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,TOMORROW RIVER NEAR NELSONVILLE, WI 04077630: Flow=145cfs,Stage=6.05ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,RED RIVER AT MORGAN ROAD NEAR MORGAN, WI 04074950: Flow=392cfs,Stage=7.99ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,WOLF RIVER AT LANGLADE, WI 04073466: Flow=19cfs,Stage=6.42ft,2015-11-24 23:05,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT SPAULDING ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073458: Flow=0.11cfs,Stage=4.43ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,ROY CREEK AT ROY CREEK ROAD NEAR GREEN LAKE, WI 04073365: Flow=853cfs,Stage=4.96ft,Floodstage=9.5ft,2015-11-24 09:00,Not ranked,FOX RIVER AT PRINCETON, WI 04072150: Flow=27cfs,Stage=11.78ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,DUCK CREEK NEAR HOWARD, WI 04072076: Flow=0.73cfs,Stage=2.72ft,2015-11-25 01:00,Not ranked,SILVER CREEK AT FLORIST DRIVE AT ONEIDA, WI 04071765: Flow=1040cfs,Stage=5.49ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,OCONTO RIVER NEAR OCONTO, WI 04069416: Flow=849cfs,Stage=8.54ft,2015-11-24 14:35,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER AT PORTERFIELD, WI 04067958: Flow=434cfs,Stage=4.47ft,2015-11-24 23:45,Not ranked,PESHTIGO RIVER NEAR WABENO, WI 04067500: Flow=2980cfs,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER NEAR MC ALLISTER, WI 04066800: Flow=2830cfs,Stage=10.52ft,2015-11-24 15:00,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT KOSS, MI 04066030: Flow=2050cfs,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT WHITE RAPIDS DAM NEAR BANAT, MI 04066003: Flow=2020cfs,Stage=7.73ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER BELOW PEMENE CREEK NEAR PEMBINE,WI 04065106: Flow=1600cfs,Stage=5.87ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT NIAGARA, WI 04064500: Flow=483cfs,Stage=2.95ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,PINE RIVER BELOW PINE R POWERPLANT NR FLORENCE, WI 04063700: Flow=112cfs,Stage=2.65ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,POPPLE RIVER NEAR FENCE, WI 04063500: Flow=1090cfs,Stage=6.81ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,MENOMINEE RIVER AT TWIN FALLS NEAR IRON MT, MI 04062011: Flow=512cfs,Stage=6.94ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,BRULE RIVER NEAR COMMONWEALTH, WI 04037400: Stage=4.06ft,2015-11-25 01:45,Not ranked,CISCO LAKE NEAR WATERSMEET, MI 04027500: Flow=260cfs,Stage=1.50ft,2015-11-24 14:30,Not ranked,WHITE RIVER NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04026859: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,POTATO RIVER AT UPSON, WI 04026561: Flow=90cfs,Stage=4.11ft,2015-11-25 02:30,Not ranked,TYLER FORKS RIVER AT STRICKER ROAD NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026511: Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,BAD RIVER AT US HIGHWAY 169 NEAR MELLEN, WI 04026390: Stage=4.95ft,2015-11-24 13:00,Not ranked,Very low value,BEARTRAP CREEK AT U.S. HIGHWAY 2 NEAR ASHLAND, WI 04025500: Flow=176cfs,Stage=1.95ft,2015-11-24 15:30,Not ranked,BOIS BRULE RIVER AT BRULE, WI 04024430: Flow=543cfs,Stage=6.89ft,2015-11-24 15:15,Not ranked,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI Go to WaterWatch (offsite) for a larger map with additional options